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Chapter 3 Lesson 2 Biomes

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Josh Patrick

on 29 October 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 3 Lesson 2 Biomes

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
Chapter 3 Lesson 2 Biomes
(Pg. 138-144)
Bell Ringer
How do biomes differ from each other?
I Can Statements
I can identify six major land biomes on Earth.
I can compare & contrast the major biomes.
deciduous forest
tropical rain forest
What is a biome?
A large ecosystem that has its own kinds of plants, animals, and soil.
What are the six major land biomes?
WB. p. 57-58
Biome Research Sheet
Biome Diorama
Animal Cracker Biome Activity
You and your partner must determine the biome each animal cracker belongs to. Think about the climate and other factors of the biome that would allow your animal cracker to survive there.
Tropical Rainforests
This biome is characterized by high amounts of rainfall and humid temperatures. It is usually found at equitorial climates.
Hardwood evergreens have a layered structure (due to the competition for light). The density creates a canopy which blocks out the light, so there is little ground vegetation.
This biome contains the largest number of plant and animal species than all other biomes combined.
Vegetation has shallow roots due to the thin layer of nutrients from the decaying leaves at the surface. Leaves are waxy to maximize evaporation. They have a drip tip (leaves catch the rain and drips down to the ground). There are vines to extend to the top of the canopy to get sunlight.
-Parrots and birds have strong beaks to crack open nuts
-Some poisonous frogs have vibrant colours to warn predators
- Hummingbirds have long, thin beaks to suck nectar from flowers
- Some animals are camouflaged within the dark tree trunks and green leaves. Other bright coloured birds blend in with the vibrant flowers.
Insects make up the largest group of animals that live in the tropical rainforest. Species include butterflies, frogs, monkeys, birds and fish.
Tropical rainforests are rapidly disappearing because of deforestation-using the slash and burn method. This causes many plants and animals to become extinct. The tropical rainforest also provides much of the worlds oxygen. Deforestation will increase CO2 levels.
Dominant Vegetation &
Animal Species
Adaptations of Vegetation & Animals
Economic Activities
Environmental Issues
Gleysol. There's a dark brown layer on top of permafrost. Since the ground is permanently frozen, it results in poor drainage.
Dominant Vegetation & Animal Species
Most of the vegetation consists of grass, moss, lichen, and shrubs because it’s too cold for tree growth. Some examples of tundra animals are snowy owls, arctic wolves, polar bears, and caribou.
Adaptations of Vegetation & Animal Species
Vegetation has shallow roots due to permafrost. Permafrost is where beneath the surface layer, the ground is permanently frozen. Animals are white in colour in order to blend into their snowy surroundings.
Cold temperatures with main two seasons, winter and summer. There is little precipitation which explains the lack of vegetation.
Economic Activities
Environmental Issues
Major Soil Types
The most prominent issue is pollution from the various economic activities. The mines and oil rigs have polluted the air and water. As well, the new structures have disturbed animal movements and feeding patterns. The pesticides used to control insects are affecting the migrating birds that feed on those insects.
Tropical Grasslands
Major Soil Types
Dominant Vegetation & Animal Species
Adaptations of
Vegetation & Animals
Major Economic Activities
Environmental Issues
Coarse grasses and shrubs dominate most of this biome with little trees. The main reason for this is because of the frequent fires from the hot, dry climate.
There are many herbivores found such as, elephants, giraffes, antelopes, and zebras. The carnivores, lions and cheetahs, prey on those herbivores.
Due to long periods of drought throughout the year, vegetation have deep tap roots that extend down to the water tables. Tree trunks store water and the thick bark holds up against annual fires.
Animals have long legs in order to migrate. Smaller animals burrow into the ground to avoid the intense heat.
The soil is dry because it's porus and causes water to move and get absorbed quickly. Near the surface there is a thin layer of humus which provides the nutrients for the plants. The infertile, gravelly soil is called lithosol. Lateric soil comes from eroded rock and latosol is high in iron and aluminum. The most fertile soils are clay and alluvial.
There is a very distinct wet and dry season with high temperatures.
Herd Grazing
The issues present in this biome are over grazing and farming. Usually animals will move around and not just graze on a certain area of land, but when people are using the grass to feed their cattle, it eventually gets eaten up. The savannah turns into a desert without vegetation. This process is known as desertification. This and poaching resulted in many species becoming endangered as well as damage from tourism.
Cattle Farming
Temperate Deciduous Forests
Dominant Vegetation & Animal Species
Economic Activities
Environmental Issues
Major Soil Types
Eastern half of North America, middle Europe, southwest Russia etc
Rainfall is high. Winter is cooler (encouraging trees to shed their leaves), and warm summer temperatures range from 20°-25°C. Clear seasons
There are deciduous trees. Some examples are oak, birch, maple, elm, chestnut, etc. As for animals there are bald eagles, black bears, coyotes, etc.
There are deciduous trees that shed leaves in the winter and grow back in the summer. Leaves are large in order to absorb sunlight.
Animals hibernate in the winter so in the summer they gain weight. Birds migrate to warmer climates during the winter.
The main issue is deforestation. By clearing too many trees, it causes soil erosion because the roots usually hold the soil in place. It also destroys habitats for animals.
The main soil type is grey-brown. The leaf litter also decomposes and provides nutrients for the soil and makes it more fertile (coniferous leaf fall is more acidic).
Temperate Grasslands
Dominant Vegetation & Animal Species
Adaptations of Vegetation & Animal Species
Economic Activities
Environmental Issues
Major Soil Types
In this biome there are short grasses with few trees in the west. As we head east, the grasses become taller.Common vegetation include Wild Indigos, Sunflowers, and Buffalo Grass.
As for animals, there are many rodents such as gophers and prairie dogs. There are larger herbivores (antelope and bison) as well.
Dairy Farming
Irrigated Crops
Since much of the land is used for grain farming and ranching, it has led to soil erosion. It erodes by rain or water.
Because of the frequent fires, grasses grow from the bottom up which allows their stems to regrow after being burned.

Small animals burrow to protect themselves from predators because of the open landscape. Their puffy cheeks allow them to store food and bring it back to their burrows. Larger animals have earthy colours to blend in with their surroundings.
There is a large range of temperatures which results in a distinct dormant and a growing season.
Chernozem soil is found in the prairies. It’s a mixture of clay, silt, and carbonate material. This soil is very fertile and enriched by animal waste over the years. There is chestnut brown soil in drier areas.
Taiga (Boreal)
Dominant Vegetation &
Animal Species
Adaptations of Vegetation
& Animal Species
Economic Activity
Environmental Issues
Major Soil Types
(Largest Biome)
Winters are cold and snowy, summers are temperate with smaller amounts of rainfall
Coniferous trees, evergreens (needles) insects in the summer and migrating birds in the summer come to nest and feed, finches, sparrows, bobcats, deer, elk
Coniferous trees have waxy needles to stop them from freezing and protects. Hooves and paws designed to walk in snow, hibernating & migrating animals (bears etc), camouflage
Podsol soil, poor soil for agriculture
Mining, oil & gas
Acidic soil
Resource exploitation (forestry is being cut down meaning habitat loss) and acid rain changes soil
Major Soil Types
Dominant Vegetation &
Animal Species
Adaptations of
Vegetation & Animal Species
Economic Activities
-Few grasses and mosses
-Jack Rabbits
Meerkats have dark stomachs to absorb heat in the cold mornings, nocturnal (hunt at night when it's cold), cold-blooded reptiles, camels have humps to store water, cacti store large amounts of water in their big stem. For cold deserts, deer have thick fur and migrate during the cold months. Small mammals burrow to escape the cold wind and snow. Plants grow close to the ground for protection
Heavy snowfall
High daytime temps, low night temps
Little precipitation
Sierozem soil, found in arid areas. Brownish grey at the surface. Alkaline
Desertification- arable land changing into deserts. This is due to the cutting down of vegetation, poor farming techniques and grazing animals. It results in little shade, poor soil (with no roots to hold it in place) and non-arable soil. Thus expanding deserts
Oil mining
Extraction of natural resources
Name That Biome!
Deciduous Forest
Tropical Rainforest
Savanna Grassland
Prairie Grassland
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