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Organization Process Approaches
Transcript of Organization Process Approaches
Meeting Intergroup Relations
Interventions Groups often must work with other groups to accomplish their goals.
Groups within the org often create problems and place demands on others.
The quality of the relationship between groups can affect the degree of organizational effectiveness. Large Group
Interventions systemwide process intervention Organization Process Approaches 1. Organization confrontation meeting
2. Intergroup relations interventions
3. Large-group interventions Organization Process Approaches Chien Li Wu & Tran Thuan Thien & Viktor Protulipac world cafes future searches decision accelerators appreciative inquiry summits search conferences open space meetings open systems planning defining feature fastest growing OD applications 1. inclusion
3. learning why? several dimensions: size purpose length structure number creating the future & setting direction redefining work organization structures planning or solving particular organizational problems < 50 participants > 2000 participants 1 to 5 days relatively planned & structured others more informal a single large-group meeting a succession of meetings combination of: open-systems thinking participation & social
construction self management application stages: preparing for the meeting conducting the meeting following up on meeting outcomes 1. preparing for the meeting design team OD practitioners organization members key ingredients 1. compelling meeting theme 2. appropriate participants 3. relevant tasks compelling reason or focal point for change "people problems" mergers or reorganizations environmental threats & opportunities radical organizational changes make clear the purpose of the meeting goal: "get the whole system in the room" assign tasks to subgroups responsible for examining the theme & drawing conclusion participants rely on their own experience 2. conducting the meeting the flow of events purpose framework three primary frameworks 1. open systems methods 2. open space methods 3. positive methods dilemma of voice dilemma of structure egocentric dilemma dilemma of emotional
contagion problem of encouraging participation
& being overwhelmed how tightly or loosely the meeting
should be organized problem of people holding on to their own
personal views of right or wrong a group dynamic where many people take on the frustrations or excitement of others 1. open systems methods diagnosis of the existing environment & how the organization relates to it develop possible future environments & action plans 1. map the current environment 2. assess the organization's responses to environmental expectations 3. identify the core mission of the organization 4. create a realistic future scenario 5. create an ideal future scenario 6. compare the present with the ideal future & prepare action plan 2. open space methods attempts to address four dilemmas minimal level of formal structure 1. set the conditions for self organizing 2. create the agenda 3. coordinate activity through information 3. positive methods hybrid approach to four dilemmas use of positive approach increase member's energy for change The Appreciative Inquiry (AI) Summit approach: 1. discover the organization's positive core 2. dream about & envision a more desired future 3. design the structural & systems arrangements 4. create the specific action plans 3. following up on meeting outcomes follow-up efforts are vital to implementing the action plans communicating the results of the meeting wider commitment to the changes structuring the change process Case studies
a) Lincoln Hospital
b) Ben & Jerry's Definition: "Work-Out" program identify problems
set priorities and action targets
begin working on identified problems Application Stages meeting and task open and honest participants are divided into problem-solving groups 1 4 10 groups are appointed representing all departments of the organization. 2 3 4 1 or 2 hours to identify org's problems 5 reconvene all groups to report identified problems 6 Categorize problems into master list each group develops action plan 7 8 9 schedule periodic follow-up meetings(monthly) periodically report Application Stages: determining specific result is difficult
classical approach (especially in times of low performance)
There is no published large-sample evaluation of the work out process. "Work-Out" is a process gathering relevant people to discuss important issue and develop a clear action plan.
Managerial and professional people
technicians, clerical personnel, and assembly workers "Work-Out" program's 4 goals:
1. To improve work
2. To eliminate unnecessary work
3. To build trust
4. To engage in the construction of an org in the future GE Medical System(GEMS):
50 GEMS employees and managers/5 days
to engage in "bureaucracy busting" by identifying CRAP(Critical Review Appraisals) in the org
to list needless approvals, policies, meetings, and reports that stifled productivity
without senior managers At the end of the week,
senior manager team listened to the concerns, proposals, and action plan from the different teams.
According to traditional Work-Out methods, managers must make instant, on-the-spot decisions
(2) rejection with clear reasons
(3) need more data to make a decision within a month Outcome:
2. to involve supplier in its internet e-mail network OD
practitioners Microcosm Group Intergroup Conflict Resolution Intergroup Relationship Intervention A microcosm group uses members from several groups to help solve organizationwide problems. Microcosm groups can create programs and processes targeted at specific issues. "parallel processes" It is the unconscious change that take place in individuals when two or more groups interact. Groups seem to "infect" and become "infected" by the other groups. if a small and representative group can intimately understand and solve a complex organizational problem for themselves, they are in a good position to recommend action to address the problem in the large system. Application Stages Identify an issue. find and address a systemwide problem this may result from an organizational diagnosis or may be an idea generated by an organization member or task force. Convene the group. Provide group training. Address the issue. Dissolve the group. group membership needs to reflect the appropriate mix of stakeholder related to the issue. members need to be perceived as credible representatives of the problem.
this will increase the likelihood that organization members will listen to and follow the suggestions they make. Once the microcosm group is established, training is provided in group problem solving and dicision making. focus on establishing a group mission, working relationships among members, group decision-making norms, and definition of the problem to be addressed. OD practitioners may need to observe and comment on how the group develops. involves solving the problem and implementing solutions. A key issue is gaining commitment in the wider organization to implementing the group's solutions. Facilitation A communication plan should link group activities to the organization. Group members need to be visible and accessible to management and labor. Problem-solving process should include an appropriate level of participation by organization members. The microcosm group can be disbanded following successful implementation of changes. Results A microcosm group addressed communications issue improved the way meetings were conducted; developed a job posting, career development, and promotion program. The group assisted in the development, administration, and feedback of an organizationwide employee option survey. Alderfer reported 7 years of longitudinal data on a race-relationa advisory group in a large organization:
white members showed sognificant improvements in their race-relations perspections.
African Americans consistently perceived more evidence of racism in the organization. Intergroup conflict resolution helps 2 groups work out dysfunctional relationship.
Intergroup conflict applies where there is little interdependence among departments and conflict or competition among them can spur higher levels of productivity. organizations with very interdependent departments conflicts may become dysfunctional groups may grow polarized result in development of defensiveness and negative stereotypes of other groups Application Stages(10-step procedure) A consultant external to the two groups obtain their agreement to work directly on improving intergroup relationship. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 set time for meeting The consultant and the managers of the two groups describe the purpose and objectives of the meeting:
to develop better mutual relationships, explore the perception the group have of each other, and formulate plans for improving the relationship. The two groups are assigned to seperate rooms and asked to write their answers to the 3 questions. What qualities or attributes best describe our group? How do we think the other will describe us? What qualities or attributes best describe the other group? reconvene
Objective: to make certain that the images, perceptions, and attitudes are presented as accurately as possible. separate again
a great number of misperceptions and discrepancies have been brought to light. analyze and review the reason for the discrepancies
The emphasis is on solving the problems and reducing the misperceptions. they meet and share both the identified discrepancies, as well as their problem-solving approaches to those discrepancies. The two groups are asked to develop specific plans of action for solving specific problems and for their relationships. formulate actionplans
at least one follow-up meeting
report on actions that gave been implemented, identify any problem that have emerged Other informal procedures: To ask each of the two groups to develop a list of what irritate them about the other group and to predict what they think the other group will say about them. Fordyce and Weil developed a modified approach:
empathy Behavioral solution to attitudinal change solution Behavioral methods
oriented to keeping the relevant parties physically separate and specifying the limited conditions under which interaction will occur
such as exchanging members
directed at changing how each group perceive the other Behavioral interventions seem most applicable in situations in which task interdependence between the conflicting groups is relatively low and predictable.
Attitudinal change intervention should be reserved for those situation in which behavioral solution might not work.
Attitudinal change interventions seem necessary when task interdependence between the conflicting group is high and unpredictable. Result attitudinal changes such as improved perceptions, increase trust, and less stereotyping in addition to improved operational result. A greater distinction between attitudinal and behavioral change needs to be made in planning effective intergroup intervention. More knowledge is needed about how culture affects intergroup conflict and how interventions need to be adjusted in cross-culture situation. Improving Intergroup Relationships in Johnson & Johnson's Drug Evaluation Depatment Johnson & Johnson (J & J) is one of the world's largest manufactures of health care products.
In mid-2000, J&J made a strategy decision to merge research and development organizations in the Pharmaceuticals Group. Drug Evaluation (DE) organization DE's purpose:
to rapidly generate data that allow J&J to make the best investment decision about the drug portfolio. RESPONSIBILITY:
investigating all compounds that maybe potential new products
making data-driven decisions in collaboration with the discovery and full-development groups
developing clinical plans that take the new drug compound into human trial. The DE management team has overall responsibility for the org and consists of the global head of DE and 7 direct reports representing chemical pharmaceuticals, clinical drug evaluation, clinical operations, and portfolio planing and resource management (PPRM), among others. The PPRM group was a new function created to improve the efficiency of DE processes. PPRM group Group member: project champions, portfolio planners, resource manager, support staff This team is responsible for planning and executing the DE plan for their compound. In the fall of 2001, the DE manager team expressed concern that there were many issues surfacing about the nature of the work, roles and responsibilities, and the general cohesion within DE. They worried that the schedule-oriented project champion and the quality-oriented clinical specialists was hurting department morale. OD
practitioner OD practitioner found that opinions varied widely as to the nature of the problem and its characteristics. Interview 3-day off-site meeting in January 2002 in Switzerland
consist of exercises to improve communications and a process to address intergroup conflict.
What do we want from you?
What we don't want from you?
What do we offer/give you?
What we don't offer/give you?
a large-group discussion of the presentation
The key issue that needed to be resolved was the decision-making process. RESULT
the two groups reported improved relations and increased trust because of an increased understanding of each other's perspectives.
they developed positive, cooperative attitudes toward the other group Lincoln Hospital Organization Problem ? Lack of experienced nurses Lack of needed equipment Schedule Issues The nurses >< The doctors Don, the new chief of surgery is at war with Mary, the veteran OR director perceptions sharing,
follow-up share their answers with each other
with the practitioner present The new director wants Mary and Don solve their problems A skilled consultant was brought as a neutral party 1. What does he or she do well?
2. What do I think I do that bugs him or her?
3. What does he or she do that bugs me agree on changes they were willing to make to their own behavior and practices and agreed on ways to support the other to be successful Ben & Jerry's Entry of OD Background Lack of teamwork Started with $12,000 Social mission 80 350 Team development Intervention => Short of the production => Long hours of working , pressure and problems Board meeting Ben & Jerry :
Good vibes Jeff : political vision Chico : innovation and excellence Henry :HMR Diagnosis Structure, roles and teamwork High commitment to the company and its mission Honesty and straightfoward Smart and articulate Founders and GM as a role models Not keeping pace with growth Stretched to limited To bring two groups together, dispense with the written lists developed isolation, and discuss only common problems. Team building Begin to plan, set priorities , coordinate efforts
Assume new responsibilities
Group management and porblem-solving skills Operational goals by cluster and department Commitments by cluster and department Responsibilities by cluster and department Responsibilities by cluster and department STATEMENT OF COMPANY MISSION Mission for Selling Ice Cream Mission for making Ice Cream Mission for Serving Sales and Manufacturing Thank you