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History of the Iranian Revolution
Transcript of History of the Iranian Revolution
Reza Shah's rule (1921-1941)
He laid the foundation for a
A program of Westernization & modernization begun.
The USA supported the Shah (Oil had A LOT to do with this support).
Shah was criticized for his relationship w/the West.
The struggle between tradition vs. modernism was emerging.
- The Shah changed the name the "Persia" to the republic of
The Rise of Khomeini
Mohammad Shah's rule (1945-1979)
Reza Shah's son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, was next up to rule, becoming
- He becomes the new Shah.
The USA knew Iran was rich with oil, so they continued to support the Shah.
The USA helped the Shah create the SAVAK, a most brutal secret security force that used torture and murder as ways to stop people who opposed the Shah.
To continue the transition to modernism, the Shah created what he called the
Start of the Pahlavi Dynasty
Reza Khan Pahlavi became Prime Minister. The current Shah leaves for Europe where he stays until he dies.
The situation worsens
- The Shah becomes more aggressive, using the SAVAK to enforce his reforms.
Protesters are arrested and killed during demonstrations.
Many others are imprisoned and tortured by the SAVAK.
- Mass riots start breaking out.
- Khomeini is released from exile and the Shah is forced OUT OF POWER.
Khomeini TAKES CONTROL OF IRAN.
The Islamic Revolution begins!
- Beginning of the Islamic Revolution!
Iran's Early History
Iran has 2 names: Iran and Persia.
Persia was an EMPIRE.
- 1st civilization in Persia
- The height of the Persian Empire.
Persepolis: An Ancient Capital
"Persia" vs. "Iran"
Modernism & Westernization
The Pahlavi Dynasty
PERSEPOLIS = The capital of the Persian Empire.
Reza Khan becomes the next Shah of Iran. His new name becomes
The White Revolution (1960-1963)
The WR was not truly a revolution, but a set of changes that the Shah made to the government of Iran.
The WR marked a
turning point in the development of Iran.
2 majors reasons for launching the WR:
Major Reforms in the WR
: The right to vote, more freedom to divorce, and abandonment of the veil.
The rich were getting richer and the poor were getting poorer.
People were getting more and more upset w/the Shah.
Riots were breaking out.
Recession and inflation plagued Iran.
SAVAK continued to repress protesters.
The WR ultimately paved the way for an Islamic Revolution.
The most important consequence of the WR was the rise of
Khomeini was a member of the clergy.
Khomeini started speaking out against the Shah and the USA.
He became an enemy of the Shah.
- He is exiled to France.
Other important events
- 52 Americans were held hostage by Iranian supporters of the Revolution
- Saddam Hussein launches assault on Iran, starting the Iran-Iraq War.
The USA is still upset about the hostage situation, so they send aid to Iraq.
- Iran-Iraq War ends
- Khomeini dies.
Major changes made
Purging of all un-Islamic influences.
Purging of all Western influences.
Persecuting all non-Muslims.
Enforcing the revolution's new Islamic regulations.
Imposing strict regulations on women.
The aftermath of it all
Khomeini left behind a depressed & defeated people,
a crippled economy, and
a destroyed organization of society.
Persepolis: The Story of a Childhood
How does this all relate? Why does it matter?
Persepolis tells the story of a girl who lived through the Revolution.
We are readers are able to get a firsthand perspective of what it was like.
Perspective is important in understanding people, both similar and different from us.
Khomeini says he will establish the Islamic Republic.
- Major changes start happening to mold Iran into an Islamic Republic.
He hoped it would get rid of the influence of the clergy
(government officials) and religious leaders
He hoped it would create a new base of support for the poor
and working classes.
: Improvement in literacy, and education becomes more modern & less religious.
: Some of the clergy's land holdings were taken and land given to peasants
- The Persian Empire: Iran, Afghanistan, Jordan, Syria,
Armenia, parts of Egypt, and Turkey.
- Reza Shah (the king) declared the country IRAN.
- It was the base for ancient
libraries, banks, courts, palaces,
trading, & markets.
- The capital was conquered and destroyed by Alexander the Great, and stayed buried until 1931.
As Prime Minister, Reza Khan puts together a political cabinet to help organize his plans for modernization & reform.