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Big Idea 3

AP Biology Essential Knowledge Big Idea 3

Gayle Fiser

on 26 April 2013

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Transcript of Big Idea 3

Big Idea 3
is really
occurs through
mechanisms. 3.D.4: Changes in signal transduction pathways can alter cellular response.

3.D.4.a. Conditions where signal transduction is blocked or defective can be deleterious, preventative or prophylactic. Illustrative examples:
Diabetes, heart disease, neurological disease, autoimmune disease, cancer, cholera
Effects of neurotoxins, poisons, pesticides
Drugs (Hypertensives, Antihistamines and Birth Control Drugs) 3.C.2. Sexual reproduction in eukaryotes involving gamete formation,
Including crossing-over during meiosis
And the random assortment of chromosomes during meiosis,
And fertilization
Serve to increase variation. (3 steps increase variation)
Reproduction processes that increase genetic variation are evolutionarily conserved and are shared by various organisms. Enduring Understanding 3.C: The processing of genetic information is imperfect and is a source of genetic variation.

3.C.1: Changes in genotype can result in changes in phenotype.
3.C.1.a. Alterations in a DNA sequence can lead to changes in the type or amount of the protein produced and the consequent phenotype. 3.B.1.b. Both positive and negative control mechanisms regulate gene expression in bacteria and viruses.

Negative control [repression, repressor protein]The binding of a specificprotein (repressor protein) to DNA at a point that interferes with the action of RNA polymerase on a specific gene is a form of negative control of protein synthesis.
Positive control [activation, activator protein] Action results in activity:In contrast to negative control, very often a specific gene requires the binding of a specific protein (an activating protein) in order to acheive RNA polymerase binding and gene expression.
http://www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu/~sabedon/biol1070.htm 3.A.3.d. Many ethical, social and medical issues surround human genetic disorders.
Illustrative examples:
Reproductive issues, (A GATTACA world?)
Civic issues such as ownership of genetic information,
privacy, (our health records; our future ability to obtain health insurance)
historical contexts, etc. 3.A.2.b Mitosis passes a complete genome from the parent cell to daughter cells.

3.A.2.b.1 Mitosis occurs after DNA replication
3.A.2.b.2 Mitosis followed by cytokinesis produces two genetically identical daughter cells
3.A.2.b.3 Mitosis plays a role in growth, repair, and asexual reproduction. (Example: Division of our body cells, etc)
3.A.2.b.4 Mitosis is a continuous process with observable structural features along the mitotic process. Evidence of student learning is demonstrated by knowing the order of the processes (replication, alignment, separation) 3.E.1.c Transmission of information between neurons occurs across synapses. 3.E.1.c.1 In most animals, transmission across synapses involves chemical messengers called neurotransmitters.
Illustrative examples:
GABA http://drtummy.com/images/stories/nervecell/nerve_cell_med.jpg 3.E.1. Individuals can act on information and communicate it to others.

3.E.1.a Organisms exchange information with each other in response to internal changes and external cues, which can change behavior.
Illustrative examples:
Fight or flight response
Predator warnings
Protection of young
Plant-plant interactions due to
Avoidance responses 3.D.3.b. Signal transduction is the process by which a signal is converted to a cellular response.

3.D.3.b.1 Signaling cascades relay signals from receptors to cell targets, often amplifying the incoming signals, with the result of appropriate responses by the cell. 3.D.3.a.2 A receptor protein recognizes signal molecules, causing the receptor protein’s shape to change, which initiates transduction of the signal.

Illustrative examples:
G-protein linked receptors
Ligand-gated ion channels
Receptor tyrosine kinases 3.D.3. Signal transduction pathways link signal reception with cellular response.
3.D.3.a Signaling begins with the recognition of a chemical messenger, a ligand, by a receptor protein. 3.D.2: Cells communicate with each other through direct contact with other cells or from a distance via chemical signaling.
3.D.2.a Cells communicate by cell-to-cell contact.
Illustrative examples:
Immune cells interact by cell-cell contact, antigen- presenting cells (APCs), helper T-cells and killer T-cells.
Plasmodesmata betweeen plant cells that allow material to be transported from cell to cell. 3.D.1.d In multicellular organisms, signal transduction pathways coordinate the activities within individual cells that support the function of the organism as a whole.

Illustrative examples:
Epinephrine stimulation of glycogen breakdown in mammals
Temperature determination of sex in some vertebrate organisms
DNA repair mechanisms. 3.D.1.c In single-celled organisms, signal transduction pathways influence how the cell responds to its environment.

Illustrative examples:
Use of chemical messengers by microbes to communicate with other nearby cells and to regulate specific pathways in response to population density (quorum sensing)
Use of pheromones to trigger reproduction and developmental pathways.
Response to external signals by bacteria that influences cell movement. 3.C.3.b.2 Some viruses are able to integrate into the host DNA and establish a latent (lysogenic) infection. These latent viral genomes can result in new properties for the host such as increased pathogenicity in bacteria. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3e/Conjugation.svg/350px-Conjugation.svg.png 3.C.2.b. The horizontal acquisitions of genetic information primarily in prokaryotes via transformation (uptake of naked DNA), transduction (viral transmission of genetic information), conjugation (cell-to-cell transfer) and transposition (movement of DNA segments within and between DNA molecules) increase variation. 3.C.1.c Errors in mitosis or meiosis can result in changes in phenotype. 3.C.1.c.1 Changes in chromosome number often result in new phenotypes, including sterility caused by triploidy and increased vigor of other polyploids. http://9e.devbio.com/images/ch19/1904fig1.gif 3.B.2: A variety of intercellular and intracellular signal transmissions mediate gene expression.

3.B.2.a. Signal transmission within and between cells mediates gene expression.
Illustrative examples:
Cytokines regulate gene expression to allow for cell replication and division; A cytokine is a protein that help activate lymphocytes and other cells of the immune system.
Mating pheromones in yeast trigger mating gene expression
Levels of cAMP regulate metabolic gene expression in bacteria.
Expression of the SRY gene triggers the male sexual development pathway in animals.
Ethylene levels cause changes in the production of different enzymes, allowing fruits to ripen.
Seed germination and gibberellin. The gibberellin hormone is the signal to grow. 3.B.1.c.In eukaryotes, gene expression is complex and control involves regulatory genes, regulatory elements and transcription factors that act in concert.

3.B.1.c.1 Transcription factors bind to specific DNA sequences and/or other regulatory proteins.
3.B.1.c.2 Some of these transcription factors are activators (increase expression), while others are repressors (decrease expression)
3.B.1.c.3 The combination of transcription factors binding to the regulatory regions at any one time determines how much, if any, of the gene product will be produced. 3.B.1.b.3.Inducers and repressors are small molecules that interact with regulatory proteins and/or regulatory sequences.

3.B.1.b.4 Regulatory proteins inhibit gene expression by binding to DNA and blocking transcription (negative control).
3.B.1.b.5 Regulatory proteins stimulate gene expression by binding to DNA and stimulating transcription (positive control) or binding to repressor to inactivate repressor function.
3.B.1.b.6 Certain genes are continuously expressed; that is, they are always turned “on,” e.g., the ribosomal genes. 3.B.1.b.2 The expression of specific genes can be inhibited by the presence of a repressor. 3.A.4.a.1 Patterns of inheritance of many traits do not follow ratios predicted by Mendel’s laws and can be identified by quantitative analysis, where observed phenotypic ratios statistically differ from the predicted ratios. 3.A.3.b. Segregation and independent assortment of chromosomes result in genetic variation.
3.A.3.b.1 Segregation and independent assortment can be applied to genes that are on different chromosomes. 3.A.2.c.3 Separation of the homologous chromosomes ensures that each gamete
receives a haploid (1n) set of chromosomes composed of both maternal and paternal chromosomes.

3.A.2.c.4 During meiosis, homologous chromatids exchange genetic material via a process called “crossing over”, which increases genetic variation in the resultant gametes. http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-A-NEprmIGQw/UFyjU9Cu5iI/AAAAAAAAAX0/DgN9R585vGc/s400/crossing+over.jpg 3.A.2.c Meiosis, a reduction division, followed by fertilization ensures genetic diversity in sexually reproducing organisms.
3.A.2.c.1 Meiosis ensures that each gamete receives one complete haploid (1n) set of chromosomes.
3.A.2.c.2 During meiosis, homologous chromosomes are paired, with one homologue originating from the maternal parent and the other from the paternal parent. Orientation of the chromosome pairs is random with respect to the cell poles. 3.A.2.a.4. Mitosis alternates with interphase in the cell cycle. 3.A.2.a.3 Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases control the cell cycle. 3.A.2. The cell cycle is directed by internal controls or checkpoints. Internal and external signals provide stop-and-go signs at the checkpoints.

Illustrative examples: Mitosis-promoting factor (MPF); Action of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) (Protein that regulates cell growth and division.; Cancer results from disruptions in cell cycle control. http://muirbiology.files.wordpress.com/2012/12/health3.jpg?w=604&h=439 iv. tRNA brings the correct amino acid to the correct place on the mRNA
v. The amino acid is transferred to the growing peptide chain.
vi. The process continues along the mRNA until a “stop” codon is reached
vii. The process terminates by release of the newly synthesized peptide/protein. 3.A.1.c.3 Translation of the mRNA occurs in the cytoplasm on the ribosome. 3.A.1.a.5 DNA replication ensures continuity of heredity information.

Replication is a semiconservative process; that is, one strand serves as the template for a new,
complimentary strand
http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/iGen3_03-01_Figure-L.jpg. http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf::535::535::/sites/dl/free/0072437316/120076/bio21.swf::Hershey%20and%20Chase%20Experiment 3.A.1: DNA, and some cases RNA, is the primary source of heritable information.
Bozeman Biology – Mr. Andersen.
Preview of Genetics.
DNA part 1
DNA part 2
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W4mYwsr9gGE&list=PLFCE4D99C4124A27A&index=35 Enduring Understanding 3.A: Heritable information provides for continuity of life. Living systems store, retrieve, transmit and respond to information essential to life processes. Big Idea 3 http://www.willamette.edu/~gorr/classes/cs449/figs/synapse2.gif 3.E.2.c.2 Transmission of information along neurons and synapses results in a response.

3.E.2.c.3 The response can be stimulatory or inhibitory 3.E.2: Animals have nervous systems that detect external and internal signals, transmit and integrate information, and produce responses.
3.E.2.a The neuron is the basic structure of the nervous system that reflects function.
3.E.2.a.1 A typical neuron has a cell body, axon and dendrites. Many axons have a myelin sheath that acts as an electrical insulator.
3.E.2.a.2 The structure of the neuron allows for the detection, generation, transmission and integration of signal information.
3.E.2.a.3 Schwann cells, which form the myelin sheath, are separated by gaps of unsheathed axon over which the impulse travels as the signal propagates along the neuron. http://scientopia.org/blogs/scicurious/files/2011/02/social_marking-territory.jpg 3.E.1.b.1 Living systems have a variety of signal behaviors or cues that produce changes in the behavior of other organisms and can result in differential reproductive success.

Illustrative examples:
Herbivory responses
Territorial marking in
Coloration in flowers. 3.D.2.c Signals released by one cell type can travel long distances to target cells of another cell type.
3.D.2.c.1 Endocrine signals are produced by endocrine cells that release signaling molecules, which are specific and can travel long distances through the blood to reach all parts of the body.
Illustrative examples:
Human growth hormone,
Thyroid hormones,
Estrogen http://askabiologist.asu.edu/sites/default/files/cell_differentiation_200.jpg 3.D.2.b. Cells communicate over short distances by using local regulators that target cells in the vicinity of the emitting cell.

Illustrative examples:
Plant immune response,
Quorum sensing in bacteria,
Morphogens in embryonic development. http://www.hypertextbookshop.com/biofilmbook/v004/r003/artifacts/images/illustrations/cell-cellCommunication.jpg 3.D.1: Cell communication processes share common features that reflect a shared evolutionary history.

3.D.1.a. Communication involves transduction of stimulatory or inhibitory signals from other cells, organisms or the environment. 3.C.3:Viral replication results in genetic variation,
and viral infection can introduce genetic variation
into the hosts.

3.C.3.a Viral replication differs from other reproductive strategies and generates genetic variation via various mechanisms.
3.C.3.a.1. Viruses have highly efficient replicative capabilities that allow for rapid evolution and acquisition of new phenotypes.
3.C.3.a.3 Virus replication allows for mutations to occur through usual host pathways.
3.C.3.a.4 RNA viruses lack replication error-checking mechanisms, and thus have higher rates of mutation.
3.C.3.a.5 Related viruses can combine/recombine information if they infect the same host cell.
3.C.3.a.6 HIV is a well-studied system where the rapid evolution of a virus within the host contributes to the pathogenicity of viral infection. http://academic.pgcc.edu/~kroberts/Lecture/Chapter%207/07-31_Transduction_L.jpg http://www.wellcomecollection.org/idoccache/25cfd53a-60fb-4e36-95c8-46935021802a_1_0.jpg 3.C.1.c. 2 Changes in chromosome number often result in human disorders with developmental limitations, including Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome) and XO (Turner Syndrome) http://www.farya.com/images/all/down-syndrome3.jpg http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/images/induction.gif 3.B.1.b.1 The expression of specific genes can be turned on by the presence of an inducer. 3.B.1.a Both DNA regulatory sequences, regulatory genes, and small regulatory RNAs are involved in gene expression.
3.B.1.a 1 Regulatory sequences are stretches of DNA that interact with regulatory proteins to control transcription.
Illustrative examples:
Promoters, Terminators, Enhancers.
Video HHMI animation:
http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/media/DNAi_transcription_vo2-lg.mov Enduring Understanding 3.B.1:Gene regulation results in differential gene expression leading to cell specialization. http://mda.org/sites/default/files/pictures/Mito_DNA-maternal-inheritance.jpg 3.A.4.c.2 In animals, mitochondrial DNA is transmitted by the egg and not by sperm; as such, mitochondrial-determined traits are maternally inherited. http://jpkc.scu.edu.cn/ywwy/zbsw(E)/pic/ech8-20.jpg 3.A.4.c Some traits result from nonnuclear inheritance.

3.A.4.c.1. Chloroplasts and mitochondria are randomly assorted to gametes and daughter cells; thus, traits determined by chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA do not follow simple Mendelian rules. http://sctritonscience.com/Wilson/biolog11psa.gif 3.A.4.b. Some traits are determined by genes on sex chromosomes. Illustrative examples:

Sex-linked genes reside on sex chromosomes (X in humans)
In mammals and flies, the Y chromosome is very small and carries few genes.
In mammals and flies, females are XX and
males are XY; as such, X-linked recessive
traits are always expressed in males.
Some traits are sex limited, and expression
depends on the sex of the individual, such
as milk production in female mammals and
pattern baldness in males. (high level of testosterone;
Male baldness is dominant 3.A.4: The inheritance pattern of many traits cannot be explained by simple Mendelian genetics.

3.A.4.a. Many traits are the product of multiple genes and/or physiological processes. 3.A.3.b.2. Genes that are adjacent and close to each other on the same chromosome tend to move as a unit; the probability that they will segregate as a unit is a function of the distance between them. 3.A.3.b. Segregation and independent assortment of chromosomes result in genetic variation.
3.A.3.b.1 Segregation and independent assortment can be applied to genes that are on different chromosomes. (replication, alignment, separation) http://mcat-review.org/mitosis.gif 3.A.2.a.1 Interphase consists of three phases: growth, synthesis of DNA, preparation for mitosis. http://jpkc.scu.edu.cn/ywwy/zbsw(E)/pic/ech11-34.jpg 3.A.2.a. The cell cycle is a complex set of stages that is highly regulated with checkpoints, which determine the ultimate fate of the cell. http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/biology/bio4fv/page/genetic-engin/pcr2484.JPG RFLP Animation:
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/007337797x/student_view0/chapter14/animation_quiz_-_restriction_fragment_length_polymorphisms.html http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/iGen3_05-09_Figure-L.jpg 3.A.1.c.4 In prokaryotic organisms, transcription is coupled to translation of the message. Translation involves energy and many steps, including initiation, elongation and termination. http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/images/transcription/eunotcol.gif 3.A.1.c.2 In eukaryotic cells the mRNA transcript undergoes a series of enzyme-related modifications.
Illustrative examples: Addition of a poly-A-tail, addition of a GTP cap, excision and introns. http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/1700/flashcards/713105/jpg/rna-polymerase.jpg 3.A.1.c.1 The enzyme RNA-polymerase reads the DNA molecule 3’ to 5’ direction and synthesizes complementary mRNA molecules that determine the order of amino acids in the polypeptide. http://www.vcbio.science.ru.nl/images/cellcycle/mcell-transcription-translation_eng_zoom.gif 3.A.1.c Genetic information flows from a sequence of nucleotides in a gene to a sequence of amino acids in a protein. http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/iGen3_02-08_Figure-L.jpg 3.A.1.b.3.i Purines (G and A) have a double ring structure
ii. Pyrimidines (C, T and U) have a single ring structure. http://schneider.ncifcrf.gov/dnabases/dnabases.jpg 3.A.1.b.3 Both DNA and RNA exhibit specific nucleotide base pairing that is conserved through evolution: adenine pairs with thymine or uracil (A-T or A-U) and cytosine pairs with guanine (C-G). http://www.genome.gov/Glossary/resources/nucleotide_lg_adv.jpg 3.A.1.b DNA and RNA molecules have structural similarities and differences that define function.

3.A.1.b.1 Both have three components – sugar, phosphate and a nitrogenous base – which form nucleotide units that are connected by covalent bonds to form a linear molecule with 3’ and 5’ ends, with the nitrogenous bases perpendicular to the sugar-phosphate backbone. https://d3r4ecz8hnfnqf.cloudfront.net/4ff32b97246b709a9cd78b8c/full/450px-dna-replication-en.svg.png Replication requires DNA polymerase plus many other essential cellular enzymes, occurs bidirectionally,and differs in the production of the leading and lagging strands. http://www.sinauer.com/cooper5e/animation0401.html http://img.docstoccdn.com/thumb/orig/98423370.png 3.A.1.a.3 Prokaryotes, viruses and eukaryotes can contain plasmids, which are small extra-chromosomal, double-stranded circular DNA molecules. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v392/n6671/images/392015aa.eps.2.gif 3.A.1.a.2 Non-eukaryotic organisms have circular chromosomes, while eukaryotic organisms have multiple linear chromosome, although in biology there are exceptions to this rule. http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/bee-waggle-dance.gifhttp://creagrus.home.montereybay.com/Bowerbd_satin-bower.jpg 3.E.1.b.2 Animals use visual, audible, tactile, electrical and chemical signals to indicate dominance, find food, establish territory and ensure reproductive success.

Illustrative examples:
Bee dances
Bird Songs
Territorial marking in mammals
Pack behavior in animals
Herd, flock, and schooling behavior
in animals
Predator warning
Colony and swarming behavior in
Coloration http://www.ncc.go.jp/en/nccri/divisions/14carc/image/14carc001.gif 3.D.3.b.3 Many signal transduction pathways include:

i. Protein modifications (an illustrative example could be how methylation changes the signaling process)

ii Phosphorylation cascades in which a series of protein kinases add a phosphate group to the next protein in the cascade sequence.
http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/receptorprotein.gif 3.D.3.a.1 Different receptors recognize different chemical messengers, which can be peptides, small chemicals or proteins, in specific one-to-one relationship. http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/uploads/tx_naksciimages/jamil1_Figure_3.gif 3.C.3.b. The reproductive cycles of viruses facilitate transfer of genetic information.
3.C.3.b.1 Viruses transmit DNA or RNA when they infect a host cell.
Illustrative examples:
Transduction in bacteria
Transposons present
in incoming DNA http://www.wikilectures.eu/images/thumb/9/94/DNA-repair2.jpg/300px-DNA-repair2.jpg 3.C.2: Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation.

3.C.2.a. The imperfect nature of DNA replication and repair increases variation. http://cnx.org/content/m44513/latest/Figure_14_06_01.jpg

3.C.1.b Errors in DNA replication or DNA repair mechanisms, and external factors, including radiation and reactive chemicals, can cause random changes, e.g., mutations in the DNA. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/08/070815-shark-gene.html http://www.mun.ca/biology/desmid/brian/BIOL3530/DB_04/fig4_b1a.jpg 3.B.1.b Signal transmission within and between cells mediates cell function.

Illustrative examples:
Mating pheromones in yeast trigger mating genes expression and sexual reproduction.
Morphogens stimulate cell differentiation and development.
Changes in p53 activity can result in cancer.
HOX genes and their role in development. ARTICLE: http://genepath.med.harvard.edu/~tabin/images/Bmp4_beak.jpg 3.B.1.d Gene regulation accounts for some of the phenotypic differences between organisms with similar genes. http://www.nia.nih.gov/sites/default/files/01_neurons_lg.jpg 3.A.2.a.5 When a cell specializes, it often enters into a stage where it no longer divides, but it can reenter the cell cycle when given appropriate cues. Non-dividing cells may exit the cell cycle; or hold at a particular stage in the cell cycle. http://classes.midlandstech.edu/carterp/Courses/bio101/chap14/f14-12_elongation_c.jpg 3.A.1.c.4 In prokaryotic organisms, transcription is coupled to translation of the message. Translation involves energy and many steps, including initiation, elongation and termination. Mechanics of RNAi

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cK-OGB1_ELE http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/rnai.html RNAi http://www.mcld.co.uk/hiv/images/RNAint-pathway.gif 3.A.1.b.4 iii. rRNA molecules are functional building blocks of ribosomes
Iv. The role of RNAi includes regulation of gene expression at the level of mRNA transcription. http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/images/bioprop/oxydeoxy.gif 3.A.1.b.2 The basic structural differences include:
DNA contains deoxyribose (RNA contains ribose)
RNA contains uracil in lieu of thymine in DNA
DNA is usually double stranded, RNA is usually single stranded.
The two DNA strands in double-stranded DNA are antiparallel in directionality. Animation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eS1GODinO8w 3.A.1.a.6 Genetic information in retroviruses is to a special case and has an alternate
flow of information: from RNA to DNA, made possible by reverse transcriptase, an enzyme that copies the viral RNA genome into DNA. This DNA integrates into the host genome and becomes transcribed and translated for the assembly of new viral progeny.
http://faculty.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/retro_lc.htm Animation: http://www.wiley.com/college/pratt/0471393878/student/animations/dna_replication/ DNA polymerase, ligase, RNA polymerase, helicase and topisomerase. Enzymes you need to know: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/37/Difference_DNA_RNA-EN.svg 3.A.1.a.1 Genetic information is stored in and passed to subsequent generations through DNA molecules and, in some cases, RNA molecules. 3.A.1.a Genetic information is transmitted from one generation to the next through DNA or RNA http://www.juniordentist.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Pituitary-gland-anatomy.jpg http://mda.org/sites/default/files/pictures/Mito_DNA-maternal-inheritance.jpg 3.E.2.d Different regions of the vertebrate brain have different functions.

Illustrative examples:
Muscle movement
Abstract thought and emotions
Neuro-hormone production
Forebrain (cerebrum), midbrain
(brainstem) and hindbrain (cerebellum)
Right and left cerebral hemispheres
in humans http://tiredoframen.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/sodium-potassium-pump.jpeg http://www.unm.edu/~lkravitz/Exercise%20Phys/actionpotential.html 3.E.2.b Action potentials propagate impulses along neurons.
3.E.2.b.1 Membranes of neurons are polarized by the establishment of electrical potentials across the membranes.
3.E.2.b.2 In response to a stimulus, Na+ and K+ gated channels sequentially open and cause the membrane to become locally depolarized.
3.E.2.b.3 Na+/K+ pumps, powered by ATP, work to maintain membrane potential. http://www.aaas.org/news/releases/2009/images/0129sp_locust_nymphs45.jpg 3.E.1.c.2 Cooperative behavior tends to increase the fitness of the individual and the survival of the population.

Illustrative examples:
Pack behavior in animals
Predator warning
Colony and swarming behavior in insects. http://students.cis.uab.edu/archived/lukeys/HPIM0957.JPG 3.E.1.c Responses to information and communication of information are vital to natural selection and evolution.
3.E.1.c.1 Natural selection favors innate and learned behaviors that increase survival and reproductive fitness.
Illustrative examples:
Parent and offspring interactions
Migration patterns
Courtship and mating behaviors
Foraging in bees and other animals
Avoidance behavior to electric
fences, poisons, or traps http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~uzwiak/NBSpring13/NBSpringLect2_files/image038.jpg http://people.ucalgary.ca/~browder/PageMill_Images/image127.gif 3.D.3.b.2 Second messengers are often essential to the function of the cascade.
Illustrative examples:
Ligand-gated ion channels
Second messengers, such as cyclic GMP, cyclic AMP calcium ions (Ca2+) and inositol triphostate (IP3) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6e/Pest_resistance_labelled_light.svg/250px-Pest_resistance_labelled_light.svg.png http://www.nature.com/nrmicro/journal/v5/n12/images/nrmicro1796-f3.jpg 3.C.1.d. Changes in genotype may affect phenotypes that are subject to natural selection. Genetic changes that enhance survival and reproduction can be selected by environmental conditions.

Illustrative examples: Antibiotic resistance mutations, pesticide resistance mutations, sickle cell disorder, and heterozygote advantage.
3.C.1.d.1. Selection results in evolutionary change. http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/disorders/whataregd/turner/images/turner_karyotype.jpghttp://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/disorders/whataregd/turner/images/turner_person.jpg Turner Syndrome XO http://insciences.org/uploads_article/11000/10548/0_1446.jpg http://www.utpb.edu/media/images/ht3r/239px-DNA_Overview.jpghttp://1.bp.blogspot.com/-CV1t6UBcCFU/UATI65O5rsI/AAAAAAAAAGM/lsYPaNMlPP8/s1600/ionizing_radiation_dna.jpg 3.C.1.b Errors in DNA replication or DNA repair mechanisms, and external factors, including radiation and reactive chemicals, can cause random changes, e.g., mutations in the DNA.
3.C.1.b.1. Whether or not a mutation is detrimental, beneficial or neutral depends on the environmental context. Mutations are the primary source of genetic variation. http://facweb.bhc.edu/academics/science/robertsk/biol100/Patterns_files/image021.jpg 3.A.3: The chromosomal basis of inheritance provides an understanding of the pattern of passage (transmission) of genes from parent to offspring.
3.A.3.a. Rules of probability can be applied to analyze passage of single gene traits from parent to offspring. http://www.biologycorner.com/resources/codon.gif http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/genweb/molecular/theory/translation/ribosome.jpg i. The mRNA interacts with the rRNA of the ribosome to initiate translation at the (start) codon.
ii. The sequence of nucleotides on the mRNA is read in triplets called codons.
Iii. Each codon encodes a specific amino acid, which can be deduced by using a genetic code chart. Many amino acids have more than one codon. Animation

http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/dna/transcribe/ http://i.imgur.com/EF0Wz.jpg 3.A.1.b.4 The sequence of the RNA bases, together with the structure of the RNA molecule, determines RNA function.

i. mRNA carries information from the DNA to the ribosome.
ii. tRNA molecules bind specific amino acids and allow information in the mRNA to be translated to a linear peptide sequence.

AnAm http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~uzwiak/GBSummer12/GB101Summer12Lect/GB101Summer_Lect16_files/image012.jpg

http://www.lifesciencesfoundation.org/content/media/2011/06/18/hershey-chase_blender_experiment-large.gif 3.A.1.a.4 The proof that DNA is the carrier of genetic information involved a number of important historical experiments. These include:http://undsci.berkeley.edu/images/us101/dna_folk.jpg

i. Contributions of Watson, Crick,
Wilkins, and Franklin on the structure of
ii. Avery-MacLeod-McCarty experiments
iii. Hershey-Chase experiment http://modeling-natural-selection.wikispaces.com/file/view/Frog_mutation.jpg/185369209/Frog_mutation.jpg 3.C.1.a.1. DNA mutations can be positive, negative or neutral based on the effect or the lack of effect they have on the resulting nucleic acid or protein and the phenotypes that are conferred by the protein.
http://i0.wp.com/www.namrata.co/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Point-mutations.png?resize=384%2C177 http://www.tildee.com/uploads/3-02-2012/D7D6C659-3304-42B6-913C-264A7175C691.png http://ibguides.com/images/10.2.1_dihybridcross.png http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_BwlbMaa50jo/S9nhogkYe0I/AAAAAAAAGTM/PJPvt3rVVuc/s1600/punnett+square+green+pea.jpg 3.A.3.b.3 The pattern of inheritance (monohybrid, dibhybrid, sex-linked, and genes linked on the same homologous chromosome) can often be predicted from data that gives the parent genotype/phenotype and/or the offspring phenotypes/genotypes. http://oscss-biology.wikispaces.com/file/view/spermatogenesis_oogenesis.jpg/31487319/spermatogenesis_oogenesis.jpg http://www.google.com/search?q=fertilization&safe=active&client=safari&rls=en&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=MBN3UdLFN4vu9AS92YGgAQ&ved=0CAoQ_AUoAQ&biw=931&bih=448#imgrc=ypUzKA2i3tMrzM%3A%3BvotMOQT6eaqO4M%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.sciencepicturecompany.com%252F_img%252Fpreview%252FFertilization_spc-id-2068.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.sciencepicturecompany.com%252Fimages%252FSPC2048%252FFertilization.html%3B487%3B487 3.A.2.c.5 Fertilization involves the fusion of two gametes, increasing genetic variation in populations by providing for new combinations of genetic information in the zygotes, and restores the diploid number of chromosomes. http://img.tfd.com/dorland/thumbs/meiosis.jpg http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/images/MITOSIS.gif http://www.biology.arizona.edu/cell_bio/tutorials/cell_cycle/graphics/cellcycle.gif 3.A.2: In Eukaryotes, heritable information is passed to the next generation via processes that include the cell cycle and mitosis or meiosis plus fertilization. http://www.scq.ubc.ca/wp-content/uploads/2006/08/pharming1.gif http://thumbnails.visually.netdna-cdn.com/gmo-genetically-modified-organism_50290d5e92a11.jpg 3.A.1.f Illustrative examples of products of genetic engineering include:

Genetically modified foods, Transgenic animals, Cloned animals,
Pharmaceuticals, such as human insulin or factor X
. http://rchemistry.wikispaces.com/file/view/dolly-fig-13-13.jpg/335532550/dolly-fig-13-13.jpg Plasmid-based transformation animation
Gel Electrophoresis lab.
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/labs/gel/ 3.A.1.e. Genetic engineering techniques can manipulate the heritable information of DNA and, in special cases, RNA

Illustrative examples: Electrophoresis, Plasmid-based transformation, Restriction enzyme analysis of DNA, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) http://images.sciencedaily.com/2009/01/090107134529-large.jpg http://www.biology4kids.com/files/art/cell_lysosome1.gif 3.A.1.d Phenotypes are determined through protein activities.
(Some things proteins do!)

Illustrative examples:
1. Enzymatic reactions
2. Transport by proteins
3. Synthesis
4. Degradation http://www.broadinstitute.org/files/news/stories/full/transposons_275x275.jpg http://cornellsun.com/files/images/Barbara%20McClintock%20-.thumbnail.jpg http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/pix/grass_transposons.jpg http://st.depositphotos.com/1068169/1350/v/950/depositphotos_13500067-Klinefelter-syndrome-eps8.jpg http://krupp.wcc.hawaii.edu/BIOL100/genetics/genetics3/Image28.gif http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_XethLiZZ7iA/SarO7H1JnfI/AAAAAAAAAAc/Y7K3BfmDaM4/s320/punnet+square+2.png http://fe867b.medialib.glogster.com/media/65/65b383656dec11d1af86c8a6fa781b1e0cfbb934c057a3b01137a9dd1e2916c6/punnett-square-me.jpg 3.A.3.c Certain human genetic disorders can be attributed to the inheritance of single gene traits or specific chromosomal changes, such as nondisjunction.

Illustrative examples: Sickle cell anemia; Tay-Sachs disease (recessive), Huntington’s disease, X-linked color blindness; Trisomy 21/Down syndrome; Klinefelter’s syndrome.
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