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Civil Rights and the First World War Chronological Thinking and Multiple Perspectives

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Chad Timm

on 6 October 2014

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Transcript of Civil Rights and the First World War Chronological Thinking and Multiple Perspectives

Teaching Historical Thinking skills: Civil Rights and the First World War
Dr. Chad W. Timm, Grand View University
Using an image from the period under study is an effective way to begin an investigation into chronology and causality.
In “Why Won’t You Just Tell Us the Answer?” Bruce Lesh uses the Railroad Strike of 1877 and the Bonus Army to teach chronological thinking, causality, and multiple perspectives. I have also used the Colorado Coal Strike and the Ludlow Massacre of 1914 to teach these skills: http://prezi.com/t112cu3oubf0/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy

Develop chronology using sources employed by historians:

More than temporal order

Instead it’s a critical determination of how the events along the line were determined to have a relationship with one another

Look for the causes of change in addition to the consequences of the change

Examine the relationships between names, dates, and events to determine why particular events occurred.
Putting today in context….
Thinking historically:
Text, Context, Subtext
Chronological Thinking
Text
:
What is visible/readable, i.e. what information is provided by the source?

Context
:
What was going on during the time period? What background information do you have that helps explain the information found in the source?

Subtext
:
What is between the lines? Ask questions about the following:

Author
: Who created the source, and what do we know about that person?

Audience
: For whom was the source created?

Reason
: Why was this source produced when it was?



In some ways, analyzing text, context, and subtext makes us historical detectives.

Watch clip from PBS documentary History Detectives: Colored Heroes
African Americans, Civil Rights and the First World War
Putting the Poster in Context
Multiple Perspectives
In your packet are short primary documents related to mob rule during the First World War.

Place the documents in chronological order. Remember it’s a critical determination of how the events along the line are determined to have a relationship with one another. What factors played a role in how you determined chronology?


At your tables….
1. To whom is this song addressed?

2. Holiday mentions "strange fruit." What is she referring to? Why is there no mention of lynching anywhere in the song?

3. Do Holiday’s lyrics accurately portray lynching? Why or why not?

4. Holiday sang the song in 1939. Why do you think she was inspired to sing it then?
Answer at your tables:
Strange Fruit
Billie Holiday
Lesh describes multiple perspectives as “an approach that examines a historical event, person, or idea through the lens of its contemporaries, participants, or proximate chroniclers.” (95)
Historical Thinking Skill #3
Multiple Perspectives
Answer the probing questions related to the documents you placed in chronological order.
At your tables…..
From 1854-1856, Kansas was engulfed essentially by a civil war between pro- and antislavery forces. From September 1913 to April 1914, Colorado was similarly engulfed in violence that the New York Times referred to at the time as “the war in Colorado.”

Standard history books refer to the violence in Kansas as “Bleeding Kansas.” Why do standard history books not apply a similar epithet to the violence in Colorado?
Closing Question
ROLE
AUDIENCE
FORMAT
TOPIC
TIME

AT YOUR TABLES: COMPLETE A R.A.F.T. For the First World War. Use the large piece of paper. WE WILL SHARE OUT
r.a.f.t.(t)
Key point: don’t let students dismiss a new artifact outright because it might contradict the interpretation they have already established.

Which artifact was most important in determining the impact the war had on African Americans at home?
Share out
Once an original interpretation is developed, present a final piece of evidence.

Encourage students to reconsider chronology and how the new source might challenge their interpretation
Mimicking that historians do not always have immediate access to all sources.
Multiple perspectives
Read one final document
ctimm@grandview.edu
http://www.tennessee.gov/tsla/exhibits/veterans/ww1.htm
Historical Thinking Skills
(Lesh, 2011)
Text, Context, Subtext
Chronological Thinking and Causality
Multiple Perspectives
Continuity and Change Over Time
Historical Significance
Historical Empathy
Historical Investigations

1. Effective social studies education rests on the foundation of rich and diverse exposure to social studies content rooted in state standards..

2.
Effective social studies education inspires students to think critically and gives them opportunities to solve problems related to significant human issues (i.e)
:
a.
inquiry learning
b. simulations
c. problem based learning
d. CSI approach
e. re-enactments
f. project based learning

3.
Effective social studies education is culturally relevant
.

4. Effective social studies education is cross-disciplinary

5. Effective social studies education prepares for local, state, national, and global citizenship

6.
Effective social studies education builds on students prior knowledge and experiences, making the learning relevant to the world outside of school
.

7.
Effective social studies education seamlessly incorporates technology into the learning experience
.

8.
Effective social studies education teaches students to exhibit disciplinary literacy by thinking, reading, writing, and speaking like scholars in the fields of social studies.
a. primary source analysis
b. reading and analyzing scholarly interpretations
c. practicing the work that historians, economists, psychologists, political scientists, geographers, sociologists, and anthropologists do.

9.
Effective social studies education assesses student thinking, processing, and problem solving, not just rote memorization
.

10. Effective social studies education is differentiated to meet the learning needs of all students.

Historical Thinking Skill #2
Chronological Thinking
Best Practices in Social Studies Education
http://www.pbs.org/opb/historydetectives/video/2285042567//
Propaganda supporting freedom, democracy, and the end of oppression
What different perspectives are represented in the documents and how do they both overlap and contradict each other?
Warning: Graphic Images
How do the words, phrases, and images used in the propaganda posters reflect the above themes
Historical Thinking Skill #4:
Teaching Empathy
"The easiest way to define historical empathy is by what it is not."
"Historical empathy is not putting students in positions where they will have the same beliefs or feel the same emotions experienced by people living in the past: these are impossible goals for students and historians."
"Students cannot adopt an identity as if they posses the body and soul of someone or sometime in the past "
"In a nutshell, empathy is not being the person. That is impossible."
Lesh, 2011
http://www.tubechop.com/watch/1538926
Empathy is the ultimate historical thinking skill. It requires not only historical thinking skills, but historical imagination.
Historical imagination isn't making up information, but is the intellectual leap between information in historical sources and the gaps within that evidence trail.
According to Bruce Lesh, "When teachers attempt to fill in the gaps of evidence by conducting a slave auction, a sophisticated cognitive process is cheated for an inauthentic historical investigation" (2007, p155).
Once you finish the chronological sorting:
East St. Louis Riots, 1917
“…students learning history do not yet share the assumptions of historians. They think differently about text, sources, argument, and the structure of historical knowledge…students may reject the transplanted activity…Engaging students in some legitimate disciplinary activity without restructuring the social interaction or challenging students’ presuppositions may yield only ritualistic understanding.”(Bain 2000, 335)


Historical Thinking Skills
Teach students that history is a discipline centered on questions and encourage them to apply information to generate interpretations about how those questions could be answered.
Therefore:
Teach students that history is a discipline centered on questions and encourage them to apply information to generate interpretations about how those questions could be answered.
Teach students that history is a discipline centered on questions and encourage them to apply information to generate interpretations about how those questions could be answered.
“By communicating at the birth of the lesson that students are examining the past with the intention of answering a historical question, I am consciously attempting to alter their perspective from one in which history is a collection of facts to one based on making arguments based on these facts.” (Lesh, 34)

Historical Questions for Part One of today's session:
How was propaganda used to rally African American support for the war effort? How did mainstream propaganda reflect contradictions?
Text:
What is visible/readable, i.e. what information is provided by the source?

Context:
What was going on during the time period? What background information do you have that helps explain the information found in the source?

Subtext:
What is between the lines? Ask questions about the following:

Author
: Who created the source, and what do we know about them?

Audience
: For whom was the source created?

Reason
: Why was this source produced when it was?



Historical Thinking Skill #1
Text, Context, Subtext
At your tables: There is a document packet that includes images depicting African Americans and the First World War.
Your task: Evaluate each image, considering its text, context, and subtext.
What is the document telling you?(text)
What is going on at this time? (context)
What can you infer about the document, like who made it, what is the goal of the document (subtext)
Finally, what contradictions, patterns, or themes emerge that link the documents together?
Share out table conversations
African Americans in the First World War: A Historical Monument

You have been commissioned by the United States National Park Service to develop a historical marker/monument that will be placed along the National Mall. Your task is to develop the inscription for the marker that describes your interpretation of the significance of African American service during the First World War. Your inscription should take into account:
• The specific factors involved in how African Americans supported the war effort at home and abroad

How did you decide where to put Strange Fruit and PBS description of the East St. Louis Riot?
2005 Senate Apology
Harvard University Department of History
Robinson Hall
35 Quincy Street, Cambridge MA


You are the chair of Harvard University’s Department of History putting the finishing touches on a manuscript titled “Making America Safe for Democracy: Civil Rights And the First World War”. The book analyzes the ways in which African Americans and other minority groups contributed to the war effort while simultaneously struggling for equality at home. Your final task is to write a short synopsis of the book, being sure to address the following major themes:
Examples of mob rule and crimes against African Americans and others during the war.
President Wilson and other government officials’ response to mob rule and lynching during and immediately after the war.
Why African Americans were motivated to help spread freedom overseas even though they didn’t have it at home.

Resolved, That the Senate—
(1) apologizes to the victims of lynching for the failure of the Senate to enact anti-lynching legislation;
(2) expresses the deepest sympathies and most solemn regrets of the Senate to the descendants of victims of lynching, the ancestors of whom were deprived of life, human dignity, and the constitutional protections accorded all citizens of the United
States; and
(3) remembers the history of lynching, to ensure that these tragedies will be neither forgotten nor repeated.
https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/109/sres39/text
http://www.writingfix.com/wac/Writing_Across_Curriculum_RAFTS_Soc_Studies.htm
http://prezi.com/u5zxleooihdm/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy
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