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The Sport of Horse-Back-Riding

The sport of Horse-Back-Riding
by

Jane Mortimer

on 22 May 2013

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Transcript of The Sport of Horse-Back-Riding

THE SCIENCE OF
Horse-Back-Riding A lot of bones are used (starting from the toes to the head, and only the major bones) during horse back riding not including the horses
The skeletal system is to support and provide structure for your body and enable you to move. Your bone look something like-
Your bones help you move your body with your horse for a smoother ride and to controle the horse. Musculo-Skeletal Systems Your heart of course is always pumping. Sometimes when you work really hard and out in the sun it gets faster and faster. You also have a horse underneath you that is also breathing and working really hard. The heart is pumping blood throughout your body for your cells to accses and use for materials, O2, and sugar. It is also helping take the wast out of the cells co2. There are four areas in your heart, the two upper chambers are called the left and right atria, two lower chambers are called the right and left ventricles. Circulatory Systems Digestion begins when you put food into your mouth.
Saliva contains enzymes which begin the chemical digestion of food. Digestive System The nervous system is the part of an animal's body that coordinates the voluntary and involuntary actions of the animal and transmits signals between different parts of its body. Your brain is always giving commands, in horse back riding its working harder by multitasking. Your moving hands legs. The horse's is working really hard too because it is taking what movements your doing and transmitting it into another movement. Nervous System The integumentary system is the organ system that protects the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or abrasion from outside. The system comprises the skin and its appendages.serve to waterproof, cushion, and protect the deeper tissues, excrete wastes, and regulate temperature, and is the attachment site for sensory receptors to detect pain, sensation, pressure, and temperature. In most terrestrial vertebrates with significant exposure to sunlight, the integumentary system also provides for vitamin D synthesis. The horses skin is set up just likie ours is although it has more hair than us to protect it from the sun. The horse can have muttiple color skin expessially for white or paint horses if its pink skin then its more prone to get a burn if it does not have hair in a spot.It is responsible for the removal of interstitial fluid from tissues
It absorbs and transports fatty acids and fats as chyle from the digestive system
It transports white blood cells to and from the lymph nodes into the bones
The lymph transports antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells, to the lymph nodes where an immune response is stimulated.
Integumentary System The immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.Innate immunity, or nonspecific immunity is the natural resistances with which a person is born. It provides resistances through several physical, chemical and cellular approaches. Adaptive immunity is often sub-divided into two major types depending on how the immunity was introduced. When horse back riding your are exposed to many deaseses. There could be fleas and ticks with deases in them near because you have and animal. You could counter anything posiness In your way on a trail ride so make sure you are ready for what ever bad thing comes your way. But Being exposed to the bacteria of the horse can strengthen your immune system because you are getting use to that bacteria over and over again. Immune System The lymphatic system is part of the circulatory system, comprising a network of conduits called lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph directionally towards the heart. Lymphatic Systems The glands of the endocrine system and the hormones they release influence almost every cell, organ, and function of our bodies. The endocrine system is instrumental in regulating mood, growth and development, tissue function, and metabolism, as well as sexual function and reproductive processes. Adrenalin is a type of hormone created by the endocrine system . For a horse that has a sudden adrenalin rush can be very dangerous. Adrenalin is what causes fear. And if a horse has some it will turn and bolt. Or jump, charge and more. For a human it could make us loose wast and run or fight. Endocrine System Past, Present and Future Sport?
(Persuasive essay) Innovation Data and Statistics ANALYSIS AND REFLECTION SCORING GUIDE REFLECTION ON EFFORT REFLECTION ON RELEVANCE Started in about 200 B.C but in
1400 BC when a first written text regarding horses is produced
4th century, horses with stirrups and saddles were very visible. Chinese and Assyrians were skillful horse riders way back in 3000 BC.
Chinese were believed to be the true horsemen; way back to 4000 BC, they started harnessing their horses. As early as 1000 BC, Chinese were also involved in selective conformation and breeding of horses. Today there many uses for horses around the world such as:
Pleasure
Show
Travel
Hunting
War
Luggage
Jumping
Mental illness fitness IN the future we might not have as much uses for horses but there will still be horses in the world found at: http://www.lovehorsebackriding.com/history-of-horseback-riding.html statistics say that horse riders can expect a serious injury for every 350 hours of riding. estimated 2300 hospital admissions annually among persons younger than 25 years A total of 557 persons younger than 25 years of age who rode horses at least six times a year completed survey questionnaires.

RESULTS:

Among the study participants, 34 (6.1%) had been hospitalized at least once because of a riding injury and 153 (27.5%) had been treated by a physician within the previous 2 years for such an injury. The overall injury rate was 0.6 per 1000 riding hours. Among those injured, sprains or strains (41.8%), lacerations or bruises (40.0%), and fractures or dislocations (33.3%) were the most common types of injury. A total of 27.5% of those injured sustained concussions or other head injuries. Riding 15 to 24 hours per month (odds ratio [OR] = 2.04), being female (OR = 1.81), and riding English style (OR = 1.77) were the characteristics most strongly correlated with injury Information found at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8057065 Horseback riding to some people is not a sport,but just an activity. While what makes a sport? While to the online dictionary Sport means:an active diversion requiring physical exertion and competition. Well horseback riding has competition such as Gymkhana (barrels, polls, flags, Ect.)Jumping, Western, English, Dressage, Showmanship, and trick. Plus it takes physical fitness, it might be easy but it all depends on the horse so sometimes its a work out and it has to be done every day. Some of these are feeding, lunging,tacking and breaking. So think is horseback riding a Sport? 'tibia
'fibuls
'patelia
'Femerr
'saccrum
'coccyx
'pelvis
'vertebrae
'falangies 'metacarpels
'carples
'radius
'ulna
'humerous
'theracie
'scapula
'clavicle
'mandible 1. Question:
a. How does having your heels down affect your balance while riding?
i. Independent Variable- The heel up or down
ii. Dependent Variable- The balance of the rider
2. Hypothesis:
a. If the heels are down then the posture of the rider is evenly whetted out.
3. Materials:
a. Horse- Slagathor in this case
b. Me
c. Tack
4. Procedure
a. Tack up horse
b. Work with him with heels down at canter
c. Next day tack up again
d. Work again with him with heels up at canter
5. Data and Analysis Muceles
The muscular system is an organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles Muscles provide strength, balance, posture, movement and heat for the body to keep warm.

Two types of digestion:
Chemicial digestion- Process that breaks large food parts into small molecules that can be taken in by cells Mechanical digestion= Process of breaking down food physical Your chewing and biting are a type of Mechanical Digestion

Then when swallowing the food goes down the esophagus, into the stomach.

he stomach has acid that slowly digest the food into sections that go into the small intestine.

he small intestine is a tubular structure within the abdominal cavity that carries the food in continuation with the stomach up to the colon. While doing so it sucks sugar and nutrient out of the food and so does the large intestine. The structure of the small intestine improve nutrient absorption because of villi These vessels are used in the transportation of nutrients which are absorbed from the surface cells.inner surface of the small intestine are specially adapted for the absorption of nutrients and chemicals, which you have eaten or drank

From where the large intestine carries it to the rectum and out of the body via the anus.
The large intestine has three parts: the cecum at the junction with the small intestine, the colon, and the rectum.

Food spend more time in the small intestine than any other section in the digestive system. Organs used Chemicals used enzymes in the saliva start the procces

The enzymes in the stomach also have an optimum conditions, meaning that they work at a specific pH and temperature better than any others.The acid itself does not break down food molecules, rather it provides an optimum pH for the reaction of the enzyme pepsin and kills many microorganisms that are ingested with the food.

Bile, which emulsifies fats to allow absorption, neutralizes the chyme and is used to excrete waste products such as bilin and bile acids. Bile is produced by the liver and then stored in the gallbladder where it will be released to the small intestine via the bile duct. The bile in the gallbladder is much more concentrated. Horse digestive system •the mouth and teeth •esophogus •stomach •small intestine •cecum •large colon •small colon •rectum •anus The Digestive system of a horse is basically the same as a humans The horses digestive system is although very delicate npo matter how strong the horse might be. The cecum is the most important and delicate. Colic Severe, often fluctuating pain in the abdomen caused by intestinal gas or obstruction in the intestines. Most comin desiesse for the horse to have. Components of the immune system



Innate immune system Adaptive immune system

Response is non-specific Pathogen and antigen specific response

Exposure leads to immediate maximal response Lag time between exposure and maximal response

Cell-mediated and humoral components Cell-mediated and humoral components

No immunological memory Exposure leads to immunological memory

Found in nearly all forms of life Found only in jawed vertebrates The Horses Musculo and skeletal system The horses skeleton is there for three main reasons; protects vital organs, provides framework, and supports soft parts of the body. The upper body ligaments that attach the bones to bones in horse are Nuchal and supraspinous ligaments and Intercapital ligaments. Ligament in the legs Intercapital ligaments, Interosseous ligaments,Proximal and distal check ligaments,Plantar ligament, Inter-sesamoidean ligaments, Distal Sacrosciatic ligamentsesamoidean ligaments, Impar ligament, and Annular ligament. Skeletal muscle: Contraction of these muscles leads to the muscle pulling a tendon, which in turn pulls a bone.
Cardiac: muscle which makes up the heart
Smooth: muscle which makes up automatic systems
Tendons attach muscles and bone, and are classified as flexors or extensors
Common digital extensor
Lateral digital extensor
Deep digital flexor
Superficial digital flexor

Horses circulatory system The horse also has a heart, duh! And the blood still works the same way as the humans with the cell. Bu the horses heart is stronger than the humans. I mean ist a huge animal withh more cells so of course the heart has to be stronger to push more blood. The average adult horse has a 3.6 kilograms (7.9 lb) heart, although it can be more than twice this size. The heart grows until the horse is 4 years of age, although it can increase slightly in size as a response to conditioning.The average pulse is 28-45 beats per minute in a mature horse, but it can reach more than 250 bpm during maximum exertion. Depending on cardiovascular fitness and the horse's response to exercise, this drops significantly within 15–30 seconds after the horse stops galloping. Lymphatic organs play an important part in the immune system, having a considerable overlap with the lymphoid system. Lymphoid tissue is found in many organs, particularly the lymph nodes, and in the lymphoid follicles associated with the digestive system such as the tonsils. It is responsible for the removal of interstitial fluid from tissues
It absorbs and transports fatty acids and fats as chyle from the digestive system
It transports white blood cells to and from the lymph nodes into the bones
The lymph transports antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells, to the lymph nodes where an immune response is stimulated.
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