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Copy of Copy of Copy of Conflict Diamonds: Cote d'Ivoire

A significant number of conflict diamonds are entering the legitimate diamond trade through Ghana, where, due to poor controls and corruption, they are being certified as conflict free.

Sheida Naderi

on 30 November 2010

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Transcript of Copy of Copy of Copy of Conflict Diamonds: Cote d'Ivoire

Conflict Diamonds COTE D'IVOIRE Introduction What are Blood Diamonds? What is the Kimberley Process? The governments involved in Kimberley Process have to pass legislation enforcing a certification process guaranteeing that diamonds are conflict free. How did the Kimberley Process Begin? In 2000, major diamond trading and producing companies, representatives of the diamond industry, and NGOs met in Kimberley, South Africa to determine how to eliminate conflict diamonds. What is the problem with Kimberley Process? Although Kimberley Process certainly reduced the number of conflict diamonds internationally, a great number of blood diamonds from places like Cote d’Ivoire is entering the legitimate, conflict-free trade. 1. Blood diamonds a.k.a. "conflict diamonds" are stones that are mined in areas controlled by rebel forces. 2.They are used to fund armed conflicts. 3. The labourers who mine these diamonds are brought to work, against their wills, under brutal circumstances. Their work barely gets paid off. The Kimberley Process is an international government certification scheme that was set up to prevent the trade in conflict diamonds. Pressured by NGOs* and public, a the Kimberley Process was launched in 2003 with supports from the diamond industry. This political agreement is currently agreed on by 71 countries: 47 countries and the European Union. Participants are only allowed to trade rough diamonds with other participants, so that blood diamonds don’t enter the Kimberley Process system. The conflict diamond traders at Cote d’Ivoire smuggle diamonds from mines in rebel-held areas into neighbouring countries such as Ghana and Mali. Since Ghana is a member of Kimberley Process, the diamonds there that had come from Cote d’Ivoire join the conflict free diamonds, and are therefore considered ‘legitimate’ diamonds. There is still a flourishing illicit trade in diamonds globally. Motivations:
-Blood diamonds could seriously damage diamond industry’s integrity
-African producing countries especially concerned about consumer perceptions of African diamonds.
-Wanted consumers to have confidence that their diamonds are conflict-free Conflict in Cote D'Ivoire Discussion Questions 3. How could governments better enforce the Kimberley Process? Governments of many countries are not adequately checking for conflict-free diamonds.
Need an unbiased inspector from the government to supervise the transactions of the diamond industry.
A country can inspect the imports and exports of another country so that the monitoring can be more impartial and unbiased.
Each country therefore thoroughly inspect the subject for any problems to arise. Governments can also prevent conflict diamonds from entering their land, so that the imported diamonds don't mix with the legitimate diamonds of their own country and thus infect the Kimberley Process. 4. Should diamond industries be self-regulating? No.
Consequences of self-regulation:
Kimberley Process has no control whatsoever over the supervision of diamond industries.
Lack of political will to change the problems of conflict diamonds because the Kimberly Process is said to be a success, even though it isn't.
Therefore, instead of leaving the diamond industries self-regulating, the UN (KPCS) should take control and set strict regulations on the trade of diamonds. 5. What do you think the Diamond industry should do to ensure that all diamonds are conflict free? Supervise more effectively.
The Kimberley Process should appoint inspectors for the diamond industry.
The heads of the industry should be non-biased and inspect on a regular basis for conflict diamonds.
Should a threat arise, inspectors have to let the heads of the Kimberley Process know.
Stronger regulations and set standards for inspections
Make the Kimberley Process mandatory for all countries 6. What steps do you think activists and consumers can take to ensure that diamonds are conflict free? Activists:
Figure out which diamonds are conflict free.
Raise public awareness about the conflict diamonds in Ivory Coast
Fund an organization and to set prizes for conflict-free companies
Ask producers of diamonds where they came from to confirm that they are conflict free.
Ask for a proof of the diamond being conflict free.
Take a second look; after all this mayhem concerning blood diamonds, do they still believe that the diamond on their ring represents beauty, purity, or strength? 7. How could the diamond industry play a positive role in Cote d'Ivoire and other diamond producing nations? Do a better job of inspecting for conflict diamonds.
Abolish the trade of conflict diamonds, so that the diamond trade is still very profitable, but now also ethically correct.
This increases a country’s stability and wealth as a whole.
STOP THE WAR Population: 17,654,843
Resources: leading cocoa producer, diamonds, timber, oil
Conflict: extended armed civil conflict since 2002
GNI* per capita: US $840
Corruption Rating: 151 of 163 countries
Life expectancy: 46.0 years Conflict diamonds are the back-ups for the armed conflict and civil war in Cote d’Ivoire.
The blood diamonds that the diamond industry purchases from rebel forces funds the weapons used by rebel groups in the war in Cote d'Ivoire. 1. How does the diamond industry affect the conflict in Cote d’Ivoire? 2. What provisions do you think would make the Kimberley Process more effective? Setting regulations for the inspections of diamonds
Forcing the governments participating in the Kimberley Process to check thoroughly for conflict diamonds.
Require the governments to have a written proof of having thoroughly checked the diamonds. How the Conflict Began:
In 2002, the northern Muslim part of Cote d’Ivoire grew into an army-led rebellion.
The southern Christian region of Cote d'Ivoire that mainly controlled the government, discriminated against the northerns for their ethnical differences
The northern people were also concerned about their right to own land, the right that they believed was threatened by the government. How the Conflict intensified:
October 2005, the UN ordered President Gbagbo to stay as a president for an extra year, even though the elections were supposed to be held in 2005.
The UN wanted Cote d’Ivoire to postpone the elections to the following year, when it would become more politically stable.
However, the oppositions of President Gbagbo perceived this action to be a result of the UN wrongly siding with Gbagbo’s supporters.
This perception escalated the conflict in Cote d’Ivoire. Human Rights Abuses:
The constant conflict in Cote d’Ivoire has resulted in numerous forms of human rights abuses. Some include:
taking on child soldiers
engaging in foul activities such as looting
Competing over land and natural resources
Deteriorating the educational, healthcare, and judicial systems The Diamond Connection:
Both sides of the conflict are exploiting natural resources to fund their military campaigns.
The national government in the South is gaining cash through the sale of cocoa, while rebel forces in the North are smuggling conflict diamonds in exchange for supplies. BY SHEIDA, TREVOR, AND KOKI *NGO = Non-Governmental Organization *GNI = Gross National Income
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