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Mr. Blake Food Science Exam Review 2014 Semester 1
Transcript of Mr. Blake Food Science Exam Review 2014 Semester 1
Vitamins and Minerals
A main nutrient that does NOT provide ENERGY
Are not Energy Providers
Fat has how many times the calories
per gram as Carbohydrate
How long is the digestive track?
The best way to describe
the Canadian diet is
High in Fat and Sugar(+Salt)
According to dietary guidelines, limiting the salt and sodium in the diet may help
to reduce the risk of
High Blood Pressure
The part of the intestine that
increases the surface area is
Which of the following is a
good source of vitamin C?
Which is NOT a good source of fibre?
Chicken Pork Beef
A build up of plaque in arteries
leading to brain may result in
Suitable food for a
toddler would be
AT WHICH STAGE DO HUMANS GROW
THE MOST RAPIDLY?
A VEGETARIAN THAT ONLY EATS
FROM PLANT SOURCES IS A
IN THIS TYPE OF THE DIABETES,
THE BODY PRODUCES LITTLE OR
MORE THAN HALF THE FOOD COMMERCIALS
CHILDREN CAN VIEW ARE DEVOTED TO
USING FOOD TO DEAL
FOR INFANTS, WHAT IS BEST
TO OFFER AS THE FIRST SOLID FOOD?
THE NUTRIENT THAT HAS THE MAIN FUNCTION
OF BUILDING AND REPAIRING BODY TISSUE IS
VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY
MAY LEAD TO
IN SOME DEVELOPING COUNTRIES,
MANY FAMILIES USE ALL OF THEIR
INCOME TO BUY FOOD?
THE MAIN CAUSE OF HUNGER IN THE
WORLD IS OVERPOPULATION
MORE THAN HALF THE FOOD COMMERCIALS
CHILDREN CAN VIEW ARE DEVOTED TO:-
USING FOOD TO DEAL WITH EMOTIONS?
How do you deal with feelings of anger, frustration, fear, stress, loneliness, conflict, depression or disappointment? Do you find comfort in food? Are you constantly on a diet but, never losing weight? When you feel frustrated or disappointed with events or people – is the answer to eat something salty or sweet?
What is emotional eating?
It is the practice of consuming large quantities of food – usually “comfort” or junk foods – in response to feelings instead of hunger.
Experts estimate that 75% of overeating is caused by feelings which means that most of us are guilty of using food to cope with emotions.
FOR INFANTS, WHAT IS BEST TO OFFER AS THE FIRST SOLID FOOD?
THE NUTRIENT THAT HAS THE MAIN FUNCTION OF BUILDING AND REPAIRING BODY TISSUE IS:
CHOCOLATE IS A STAPLE FOR MANY COUNTRIES
False Chocolate is a Major Export for some countries
CHINA GROWS ALMOST 70% OF THE MAIN CROPS OF THE WORLD?
A STAPLE FOOD THAT IS LOW IN PROTEIN,
BUT SUITABLE BECAUSE MANY CAN EASILY GROW
IT IN MANY PLACES
WHAT ARE FOOD ADDITIVES?
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavour or enhance its taste and appearance. Some additives have been used for centuries; for example, preserving food by pickling (with vinegar), salting, as with bacon, preserving sweets or using sulfur dioxide as in some wines. With the advent of processed foods in the second half of the 20th century, many more additives have been introduced, of both natural and artificial origin.
WHICH SUBSTANCE SLOWS DOWN OR PREVENTS
RANCIDITY IN FATS AND OILS AND PREVENTS BROWNING
WHEN FRUITS OR VEGETABLES ARE CUT AND EXPOSED TO THE AIR?
Health benefits of good nutrition
So what is this "preventive medicine?" You can be healthy and avoid illness simply by eating the right foods, avoiding the bad foods and doing the right kinds of exercise.
What is Wellness?
Wellness / good health has traditionally been viewed as freedom from disease; thus, if you were not sick, you were considered healthy. This perspective is changing. While everyone agrees that the absence of illness is one part of being healthy, it doesn't indicate whether you are in a state of well-being.
Cheese and Crackers
CULTURE when eating food
Chinese people stress filial piety all the time. The practice of presenting the best or fine food first to the senior members of the family has been observed for countless generations. In ancient times the common people led a needy life but they still tried their best to support the elder mother or father who took it for granted.
Though Indian cooking uses an extensive array of specialized utensils for various purposes, Indians traditionally do not use cutlery for eating, as many foods - such as Indian breads and curry - are best enjoyed when eating with the hand
RELIGION affect food choices? Give TWO RELIGIOUS examples.
in Hinduism the cow is considered sacred so hindus do not eat beef and Muslims do not eat pork because when Jesus cast out demons he sent them into pigs so they believe pigs are unhealthy.........
education and training required for a dietitian in Canada
1) obtain a four year bachelor's degree with a focus in Foods and Nutrition. Dietitians of Canada maintains a list of accredited Dietetic Education programs at Canadian Universities.
2) complete the supervised practical training;
3) register with a provincial dietetics organization.
safety precautions to take when having children participate in the kitchen
1. Supervise young children and first-time chefs. Never let your child cook alone.
2. Develop patience. Your children will make fewer mistakes when they are enjoying the process and not worrying about getting yelled at.
3. Handle kitchen products properly. Don’t assume your children will know what to do with kitchen products just by watching you in the kitchen. Take the time to explain how each product works, as it’s needed for each recipe.
4. Understand fire safety. Explain how the fire extinguisher works, how to put out a grease fire, and when to call 911.
5. Wear short sleeves. Long sleeves have a chance of catching fire or falling into hot grease or boiling water.
6. Wear an apron. Aprons help protect clothes and add extra padding in case of spilt hot water, splattered oil, etc.
7. Use oven mitts. Never use a towel to move hot pans because the loose parts of the towel can fall onto a hot burner and catch on fire. Oven mitts are safer because they help your children hold onto the handle of a hot pan more securely.
8. Wash your hands. Hands carry germs and can contaminate food.
9. Keep pan handles facing in and over countertops. Pan handles should never extend over the hot stove and definitely not out towards the floor where someone could bump the handle and spill a pot of hot food on him.
10. Never leave food unattended. Unwatched pots can spill over causing fires and other kitchen hazards.
11. Clean up spills. Serious injuries occur when others slip and fall because of wet floors or foreign objects, so make sure your children understand the importance of cleaning up a spill as it occurs. (Always have a mop or rag handy.)
12. Speed clean ups. Teach your children to clean while they wait for the next stage in preparing the food (i.e. water boils, soup simmers, etc.).
13. Never eat raw meats or poultry. Raw poultry can lead to food poisoning (i.e. salmonella).
14. Wash surfaces where raw meats and poultry touched. Surfaces touched by raw meat should be cleaned before placing another food product on that surface to prevent cross contamination.
15. Keep raw food separate from cooked food. Never place cooked food back on a plate that once contained raw food.
16. Metal and microwaves don’t mix. Any object that contains metal or aluminum should not be placed into a microwave because doing so could cause a fire.
Cross contamination is what happens when bacteria from one food item are transferred to another food item, often by way of unwashed cutting boards or countertops, as well as knives and other kitchen tools, or even unwashed hands. Cross contamination can in turn lead to food poisoning.
Steaming, Boiling, Microwave etc.......) Cooking methods
Steaming works by boiling water continuously, causing it to vaporize into steam; the steam then carries heat to the nearby food, thus cooking the food.
BOILING food is the process of cooking it in a boiling liquid, usually water. Boiling water has a temperature of 100C°, and no matter how long it boils or how hard it boils, it never becomes hotter
Microwave oven heats food by electric heating accomplished with radiation used to heat polarized molecules in food
Information found in a well written recipe
The name of the dish, how many serves, the ingredients, a hint how to prepare the dish and at what temperature it has to be cooked
( in the oven ). If you want to add more information you can add the amount of time you need for it, if it´s simply to cook, the calories, if it´s low budget or high budget
How much families spend on food
American spending patterns have changed a lot over the last 35 years. Food expenditures used to consume nearly one-fourth of family income. Today that proportion is less than 15 percent for many households. Housing expenditures (rent or mortgage payment) have increased from approximately 13 percent of household income in 1960 to nearly 30 percent for most household types today (and even more in high-cost areas of the country). Transportation expenses have also gone up, from 15 percent of the family income in 1960 to more than 20 percent today for many families.
There is no "right" or "wrong" amount to spend on a given expense area, just as there is no "average" family to compare with your family. Average living expenditures are a composite from many individual families. Your own family's goals, values, and stage in the family life cycle greatly affect the way resources are allocated.
Basic information found on most food labels
*Name and Address
Nutrition Facts Table on the packages
The Nutrition Facts table gives you information on the amount of 13 core nutrients and calories in an amount of food. Use this information and the % Daily Value (% DV) to choose and compare food products for a healthier you.
What is the ingredient list?
It is a list of all the ingredients in a food. The ingredients are listed in order of weight, from most to least. This means that the food contains more of the ingredients at the beginning of the list and less of the ingredients at the end of the list. Food companies have to put the ingredient list on packaged foods.
SIX major types of nutrients
Yes, water is a nutrient. It is the most important nutrient. In fact, your body is approximately 50 to 55 percent water. A by-product of the energy production in your body is heat. Water regulates your body temperature by dissipating that heat. Water also carries nutrients to the cells in your body. Water does not produce energy.
Carbohydrates are the primary source of energy for your body. Carbohydrates power every system in your body, including your brain, heart, muscles and internal organs. Carbohydrate can be simple (table sugar, corn syrup) or complex (whole grain). Simple carbohydrates enter your bloodstream very quickly. Complex carbohydrates are processed and used more slowly.
Protein is like the brick and mortar of your body. It is the building blocks that provide the structure for the tissues of your body. Proteins are also used to transport essential elements in your blood stream.
Fat are our storehouses of energy. The primary purpose of fat is energy production. There are two main types of fats - saturated and unsaturated. Animal fats (meat, butter, lard) are usually saturated fats Vegetable fats (olive oil, corn oil) are generally unsaturated fats .
Vitamins are essential for the regulation of many of the functions of the body. Most vitamins cannot be manufactured by the body and must be obtained from your diet.
Minerals are compounds, obtained from your diet, that combine in several ways to form the structures of your body. For instance, calcium is a mineral that is crucial in the formation and maintenance of your bones.
main function of TWO of the major nutrients
Complete and incomplete proteins
Complete proteins contain all nine essential amino acids ('essential' meaning the human body cannot produce them and therefore you need to get them through your diet).
Examples of foods that are 'complete protein' sources: animal foods such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, and milk products such as yogurt and cheese. Soybeans are the only plant protein considered to be a complete protein.1
Incomplete proteins lack one or more of the nine essential amino acids.
Examples of foods that provide incomplete proteins: beans, peas, nuts, seeds, and grain. A small amount of incomplete protein is also found in vegetables.1
The nine essential amino acids are: isoleucine, leucine, lysine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, histidine, valine and phenylalanine.2
Food groups in the Canada’s Food Guide
Important meal of the day
Eating breakfast is the secret to staying healthy, according to evidence unearthed by doctors in the US.
They believe skipping the first meal of the day increases the chances of becoming obese, developing diabetes or even having a heart attack.
They found that people who ate breakfast every day were a third less likely to be obese compared to those who skipped the meal.
one reason a majority of people give for becoming Vegetarians?
For health reasons -
Excessive meat eating is linked to cancer and circulatory system diseases.
Meat is high in cholesterol and can be bad for you, especially in the quantities eaten in the US.
Most cases of food poisoning are from animal products; factory farms, slaughterhouses, and meat packing plants are extremely unsanitary places.
Vegetarians usually have less weight problems, lower rates of cancer, and live longer. The Ornish diet (low fat vegetarian) is proven to reverse heart disease.
Meat takes a very long time to be digested.
For ethical/ philosophical reasons -
The cruelty of the meat industry is inexcusable.
Animals are not ours to eat, and should not be raised for slaughter.
We deny animals their natural rights.
Some people believe it is wrong to kill and eat animals
They object to the way animals are treated in factory farms and in the slaughterhouses.
The animals are often given drugs to make them grow bigger and produce more meat; this is not healthy to animals or humans.
Animals have feelings and a personality just like us!!
They think eating meat is morally wrong.
For environmental reasons -
To help save the planet.
Meat production destroys endangered rain forests, produces lots of methane (a greenhouse gas) and water pollution in the form of sewage.
Livestock raising produces more greenhouse gases than all the cars in the world. Raising vegetarian food uses much less water.
Half of all water used in the US is used to raise livestock.
It takes many pounds of vegetarian food to produce one pound of meat.
In the US over half of all the food grown goes to livestock production.
Meat eating creates around half of the world's pollution, traffic only causes 11%.
Meat production is wasteful to water resources, land resources, and food itself.
For religious reasons/ spiritual advancement -
Some religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and the Seventh Day Adventists encourage people to become vegetarian.
Eating meat creates bad karma.
Seventh Day Adventists are among the healthiest people in the world today.
FOUR types of vegetarians and the foods eaten by each.
The vegan diet
This is the most restrictive type of vegetarian diet. Vegans not only eliminate all animal-based foods but avoid dairy products of all types as well as eggs. While generally considered to be a healthy diet in terms of preventing disease, it takes planning to get enough protein, iron, and calcium on a vegan diet, although it’s not impossible. Many people start out with less restrictive form of vegetarianism and gradually progress to a vegan diet over time.
People who adopt a lacto-vegetarian diet abstain from all meat products, including eggs, but continue to eat dairy products. The advantage to this form of vegetarianism is you’re less likely to develop a calcium deficiency due to the inclusion of calcium rich milk products.
Lacto-ovo vegetarians avoid all meat but allow themselves to eat both dairy products and eggs. The inclusion of eggs and milk makes it easier to maintain calcium and protein levels and is, in general, an easier form of vegetarianism to adapt to, particularly if you eat out a great deal. Have you ever stopped to consider how many baked goods contain eggs and dairy products?
Flexitarian is a relatively new term for a type of “on and off” vegetarian who eats a basic lacto-ovo vegetarian diet with the addition of meat products on occasion. This group of vegetarians is sometimes criticized for their lack of commitment to the vegetarian cause. Some flexitarians use this more flexible form of vegetarianism to test the waters and eventually transition over to more restrictive types of vegetarianism.
What government agency controls food additives?
Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Functions of food additives
Food additives can be defined as chemical substances deliberately added in foods, directly or indirectly, in known and regulated quantities, for purposes of assisting in the processing of foods, preservation of foods, or in improving the flavor, texture, or appearance of foods.
To maintaining or improve nutritional quality
To maintain or improve product safety or quality
To aid in processing or preparations
To enhance sensory characteristics
Body image refers to a person's feelings of the aesthetics and sexual attractiveness of his or her own body. The phrase body image was first coined by the Austrian neurologist and psychoanalyst Paul Schilder in his book The Image and Appearance of the Human Body (1935).
Unhealthy and healthy eating patterns
1. Not Planning Your Meals and Snacks
2. Eating sporadically and erratically
3. Loading up on high carb, low fat or low carb food
4. Eating nothing but packaged, high-convenience foods
5. Taking supplements in place of eating real foods
6. Depriving yourself of things you enjoy in the name of ‘health’
7. Ignoring the warning signs your body is giving you
A fad diet
5 Ways to Spot a Fad Diet
1. The diet is based on drastically cutting back calories.
Starvation-type diets that require the body to fast often promise quick results. But our bodies simply aren't designed to drop pounds quickly.
2. The diet is based on taking special pills, powders, or herbs.
These are usually just gimmicks — and the only thing they slim down is your wallet.
3. The diet tells you to eat only specific foods or foods in certain combinations.
There's no reliable scientific proof that combining certain foods works
4. The diet makes you completely cut out fat, sugar, or carbs.
Depriving our bodies of needed food groups is a bad idea (especially when they're still growing). It's better to eat smaller portions in well-rounded meals (meals that contain servings of protein, grains, fruits, and veggies).
5. The diet requires you to skip meals or replace meals with special drinks or food bars.
As with diets that ban certain food groups, skipping or substituting meals can mean you don't get the nutrition needed to support healthy development.
Dr. Stanley Bernstein is a Canadian physician who specializes in medically-supervised weight loss programs. Dr Bernstein’s weight loss practice began in 1974 – and has now grown to over 50 clinics in Canada alone.
Dr. Bernstein’s program is clinic-based only – and there are currently clinics in Canada and the USA.
Cost and Expenses
The costs of the program are a bit vague, but some have reported spending over $1000.00 on the program. The costs will likely depend on how much weight loss is required and the amount of time spent at the clinics.
The Dr. Bernstein Diet also has a range of snacks and supplements that the dieter is encouraged to purchase.
Exercise isn’t encouraged
B12 and B6 injections may not be necessary for everyone.
Client visits are necessary.
Blood cholesterol and dietary cholesterol
It may surprise you to know that our bodies make all the cholesterol we need. When your doctor takes a blood test to measure your cholesterol level, the doctor is actually measuring the amount of circulating cholesterol in your blood, or your blood cholesterol level. About 85 percent of your blood cholesterol level is endogenous, which means it is produced by your body. The other 15 percent or so comes from an external source -- your diet. Your dietary cholesterol originates from meat, poultry, fish, seafood and dairy products. It's possible for some people to eat foods high in cholesterol and still have low blood cholesterol levels. Likewise, it's possible to eat foods low in cholesterol and have a high blood cholesterol level.
Hunger and appetite?
Hunger is defined as the ‘need for food.’ Your body lets you know you’re running low on fuel and that a meal is needed to provide your body with the necessary energy (food) it needs to perform an activity. Hunger instinctively protects the body from depleting energy reserves.
Appetite, on the other hand, is defined as the ‘desire for food.’
Comfort food is food prepared traditionally, that may have a nostalgic or sentimental appeal, or simply provide an easy-to-eat, easy-to-digest meal rich in calories and nutrients
Here are 10 comfort foods that will surely
send you soaring back in time:
1. Macaroni and cheese
2. Chocolate chip cookies
3. Ice cream
5. Grilled cheese sandwiches
6. Tomato soup
8. Chocolate shakes
10. Homemade soups and stews
Chocolate, Chips, Sweets, and Candy