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Transcript of Periodic Table
Classification of Groups and Periods
in Periodic table
The elements in which the last electron enters one of the 5f-orbitals are called 4f-block elements or second inner transition series. They are also called Actinides because they come immediately after actinium. The general electronic configuration is [Rn]5f1-14 6d0-1 7s2
The elements in which the last electron enters one of the 4f-orbitals are called 4f-block elements or first inner transition series. They are also called Lanthanides because they come immediately after lanthanum
The two rows at the bottom of the table has 16 groups.
1st period has only 2 elements. 2nd and 3rd have 8 elements in each periods. 4th and 5th have 18 elements in each periods. 6th and 7th have more than 18 elements in their period.
The 2 rows at the bottom of the table are Lanthanides and Actinides.
Rows in periodic table are called PERIOD.
In modern periodic table, elements are arranged into 7 periods.
All of the elements in a period have
the same number of energy levels.
Two rows that appear at the bottom of the table in order to make table fit on page.
The columns in the table are called Groups.
The elements in a group have the same number of electrons
in their outer level.
There are 18 numbered groups in the periodic table.
Although this should be in group IA, but its properties are quite different.
This element is colorless gas composed of H molecules.
IA : The Alkali Metals
The Alkali Metals are:
Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium, Francium
The alkali metals, found in group 1 of the periodic table (formerly known as group IA).
Very reactive metals that do not occur freely in nature.
Have only one electron in their outer shell.
Therefore, they are ready to lose that one electron in ionic bonding with other elements.
They are malleable, ductile, and good conductors of heat and electricity. The alkali metals are softer than most other metals.
Cesium and francium are the most reactive elements in this group.
Alkali metals can explode if they are exposed to water.
IIA:The Alkaline Earth Metals
The elements in the group include beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra).
IIIA : Boron Family
The boron family contains the semi-metal boron (B) and metals aluminum (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), and thallium (Tl).
• Atomic radius increases down the group (Tl has the largest atomic radius.)
• Electrode potential increases down the group (reactivity decreases down the group)
• Ionization Energy decreases going down the group (because the electrons are farther from the core and therefore are easier to remove; Tl does not fit this trend)
IVA : Carbon Family
The carbon family contains carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl).
Each of these elements has only two electrons in its outermost p orbital: each has the electron configuration ns2np2.
Tend to adopt oxidation states of +4 and, for the heavier elements, +2 due to the inert pair effect.
VA : Nitrogen Family
The nitrogen family includes nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), arsenic (As),antimony (Sb), and bismuth (Bi).
Have the electron configuration ns2np3 in their outer shell, where n is equal to the principal quantum number.
The nitrogen family is located in the p-block
VIA : Oxygen Family
VIIA : The Halogens
VIIIA : The Noble Gases
- React with halogens to form ionic halides
2M +X 2MX
- React with oxygen to form different oxides.
(X = Li , Na , K , Rb , Cs M = F , Cl , Br , I)
- Li forms the oxide, Li2O,
- Na forms peroxide, Na2O2,
- K, Rb and Cs form the superoxides, EO2
4Li +O 2Li O
K +O KO
react with halogen to from ionic halides
M(s) + X2 MX2(s)
( M = Be,Mg,Ca,Sr,Ba X = F,Cl,Br,I )
• react with oxygen to form oxide, MO.
2M(s) + O2(g) 2MO(s)
react with hydrogen to form ionic hydrides
M(s) + H2(g) MH2(g)
( M = Mg,Ca,Sr,Ba,Ra )
the larger metals react with water to form basic solution and hydrogen gas
( M = Ca,Sr,Ba )
react with nitrogen to form ionic nitrides
3M(s) + N2(g) M3N2(s)
The oxygen family, also called the chalcogens, consists of the elements found in Group 16 of the periodic table and is considered among the main group elements.
It consists of the elements oxygen (O), sulfur (S), selenium (Se), tellurium (Te) and polonium (Po). These can be found in nature in both free and combined states.
All elements of the oxygen family have 6 electrons
The halogens are five non-metallic elements found in group 17 of the periodic table.
The term "halogen" means "salt-former" and compounds containing halogens are called "salts".
All halogens have 7 electrons in their outer shells, giving them an oxidation number of -1.
This chemical series contains helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon.
Most stable due to having the maximum number of valence electrons their outer shell can hold.