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Joelie McCrary

on 11 January 2017

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Transcript of Memory

Just how quickly and effectively does your brain encode
image memories
Image Memory
The Information Processing Model
-views memory as a system (like computers)
memory - processing or writing the memory in your brain
Levels of Encoding
Shallow Processing
Deep Processing
Shallow Processing
Simple repetition
Think back to a time when you absolutely could not remember something.
Deep Processing
coding by forming associations
Subjective Organization
- another effective encoding process
Mnemonic Devices
- memory devices for improving encoding and retrieval of memories
Common Mnemonics
Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally
or PEMDAS (order of operations)


Lat is Fat

Every Good Boy Does Fine
(reading music)

Spring Forward, Fall Back
(day light's savings)

Mnemonic Wizards
- a psychological memory
phenomenon where people recall
bits of information in chunks or clusters
Making connections to information with images may actually help memory recall
Video 2
Video 1

Once encoded, memories go to different types of memory storage
Memory Storage
1. Sensory Memory
Types of Storage
Sensory Memory
- very brief storage
Within your Sensory Register
Visual Sensory Register
Auditory Sensory Register
Iconic Registry
: we can maintain an image or pattern in our mind that was briefly shown to us and can hold that image for a few tenths of a second after it disappears
test your iconic registry
Visual Sensory Registry
Auditory Sensory Registry
Echoic Memory
: we can maintain a sound we've heard about 3 or 4 seconds after the stimulus is heard
Let's try the Echoic experiment:
Test Subject A
Listen to the song.

Repeat the first line of lyrics after the song stops.
Test Subject B
Listen to the song.

After 2 minutes we will come back to you and have you repeat the lyrics to us.
Working Memory
- relatively brief memory storage that is limited to about 18 seconds unless the information is rehearsed (then it may stay longer)
*Chunking Activity
Serial Position Effect
Primacy Effect
: we tend to recall items at the beginning of a list
When we store lists, we tend to have a harder time recalling information from the middle.
Long Term Memory
- our most permanent memory storage

- Let's test your episodic, semantic, and procedural memories
Episodic Memories
- Long term memories of personal events
Semantic Memories
- memories for factual knowledge
Procedural Memories
- memories of how to do a task
Long Term Memory
aware of
memories unconsciously aware of
Let's test your implicit memories...
Memory Retrieval
- this is the process of piecing together stored memories and fitting them into a meaningful organization
in Retrieval
- memories are reconstructed at retrieval and our mind wants to fill in any gaps in the memories with assumptions
Eye Witness Testimonies
- thus, eye witness testimonies are VERY unreliable and are not highly regarded in courts anymore
Recalling Memories that Never Happened
Ex: The Bunny Effect
State Dependent Memory
- some memories may be retrieved more easily when someone is in the same mental or emotional state as when they were encoded
Activity 4.1 Distorted Memory During Encoding
What is so remarkable about Steven Witshire's memory?
Decay Theory
Interference Theory
Repression Theory
Decay Theory
- believes that forgetting is caused by the passage of time
Interference Theory
Retrieval failure occurs when established connections and associations conflict with the information we are trying to recall
Proactive Interference
: when old information interferes with retrieving new information
Retroactive Interference
: when recently learned information decreases your ability to retrieve old material
Repression Theory
Sigmund Freud believed that painful memories are stored in the unconscious mind
Freudian Slip: speech error
"slip of the tongue" that reveals an unconscious thought
5.1 Activity: Interference
Erasing Memories

Are there benefits to this?
Trouble with retrieval...
Flashbulb Memories
- a phenomenon where people recall a very vivid, distinct memory of an experience in the past
Memory Test
Selective Attention
- sometimes we don't have memories of things because of our selective attentions
Selective Attention
"Do you know your dollar?"
memory - placing it somewhere to be reopened
memory - picking it back up
This is not an effective way to encode
Making the information meaningful is the best way to encode
The brain takes just a second or two to encode a picture
Image memory is very durable and long-lasting.
You would perform similarly on this test if you took it again in 24 hours or even a few days from now
- categorizing items
- List as many mnemonic devices you've learned in the past
- Magic Number 7 (+/- 2)
5-9 chunks
- Write down as many phone numbers that you can recall.
2. Working Memory
(Short Term)
3. Long Term Memory

- if bombarded with lots of unmeaningful information, it will only last for a short period of time in your sensory register
- most will be discarded
- only about 7 items can be maintained in working memory
(this is why chunking works)
- you can increase you memory storage if you can place info into 7 meaningful chunks
Recency Effect
: We tend to recall items at the end of a list
-Ex: What did you eat for breakfast?
- Ex: Who was president during the Civil War?
- Do you remember how to properly drive a car? brush your teeth? tie your shoe?
-testimonies may be influenced by phrasing of questions
- children are very susceptible to having false memories implanted
- Ex: Ronald Cotton
Ex: When you can't remember your sister's new boyfriend's name because all you can think is the name of her former boyfriend
Ex: when you can't remember what you learned last week in Psychology because all you can remember is what you you learned today
"tip of the tongue" phenomenon
: when a person believes they know something but just can't find the words for it
- Tip of the Tongue Studies
Is it really on the tip of their tongue?
- memories typically come
from an event that was
very emotional or had
significant after math
-Ex: "where were you on
"What were you doing
when Michael Jackson
also called "The Cocktail Party Effect"
- ability to focus attention one one stimulus and tune out every other stimulus
-Ex: you can focus on one conversation in a noisy party,
persistent learning over time
- used to explain how memory works
also called sensory Register
also called Short-Term Memory
we are often aware that we are encoding these memories
This is called "
effortful processing
we don't usually consciously encode these memories (go straight to storage)
This is called "
automatic processing
Spacing Effect
repetitions of an experience farther apart in time will have greater effect in improving memory than repetitions close together in time
Testing Effect
practicing retreiving the memories will improve overall memory retention
Ex: doing practice tests will help memory more than rereading the material
Explicit Memory System
: where explicit memories are stored
- during sleep the hippocampus cosolidates memories
Implicit Memory System
Frontal Lobe
: activates during working memory processing
: responsible for conditioned reflexes
Basal Ganglia
: responsible for procedural memories
Memories in the Brain
Context Dependent Memory
- putting yourself back in the context where you experienced something can
your memory retreival
our memories can be "
mood congruent
Source Amnesia
- attributing the wrong source to an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined
1. How many times do you think you'd have to see or hear a new concept in order to remember it?
2. On a scale of 1 - 10, how confident are you that you would remember something if you were exposed to it...
10 times?
100 times?
1000 times?
Can you identify the real penny?
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