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Copy of Leadership

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Taylar Austin

on 13 February 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Leadership

Proved to be of little value to I/O psychologists
emotional stability +
+ openness to experience + conscientiousness
Laura Guischard
Amalie Laurich
Taylar Austin
Reba Floto


The Characteristics
of a Good Leader
To have a good leader they need to have a good set of skills.
One great definition of Leadership is:
"Leadership is the art of
leading others to deliberately
create a result that
wouldn't have happened otherwise"

Ability to Inspire
This means you have an intimate
knowledge of your inner emotional state.
Which allows you to know your strengths
and weaknesses. You should also know
your capabilities and your limitations,
allowing you to push yourself to your
maximum potential.
You're able to direct yourself effectively and
get things done
organize tasks
generate energy


It is important that a leader is honest to
their team. As a leader you are responsible
for a team of people, its important to
raise the bar even higher. Your business
and its employees are a reflection of
yourself, and if you make honest and
ethical behavior a key value, your team
will follow.
Having good communication skills are important. With this skill you are able to clearly and effectively describe what you want done. If you
can’t relay your vision to your team, you won’t
all be working towards the same goal.
It is important as a leader to inspire
your team.
-Focus on goals

Leaders need to be committed to their work and team. Proving your commitment to your role, you will not only
earn the respect of your team, but will
also gardener the same hardworking energy
among your team.

Leadership is organizing a group of people to achieve
a common goal. Leadership is a process of social
influence, which maximizes the efforts of others,
towards the achievement of a goal.

Quotes of Leadership

Warren Bennis: “Leadership is the
capacity to translate vision into
New Approaches to Leadership
Mahatma Gandhi; 'Be the change you want to see in the world'
Nelson Mandela: "It is better to lead
from behind and to put others in
front, especially when you celebrate
victory when nice things occur. You
take the front line when there is
danger. Then people will appreciate
your leadership"
John Quincy Adams;“If your actions
inspire others to dream more, learn
more, do more and become
more, you are a leader.”


Susceptible Followers
Conducive Environments
Conceptual Distinctions
Leadership Emergence vs. Leadership Effectiveness
Elected? Appointed?
Simply accepted?
Circumstantial opportunity?
Toxic Triangle
Leader vs. Manager
Detail oriented
Empathetic towards others
seeks approval from others
When Leadership Goes Awry

Part 1: The Peter Principle

Leader-Member Exchange
Basic concept that leaders develop relationships differently with each member of their team
How do you develop relationships?
Member joins team
leader assigns opportunities that show abilities
Role Making
Negotiation and creation of role
trust building is important
culture/gender/race factor
Ongoing social exchange between leader and member is established
transform their followers by appealing to nobler motives
Idealized Influence
This leader...serves as a role model from building trust and respect from followers
Inspirational Motivation
This leader will have....clear vision and focus and has the ability to articulate with passion and motivation
Intellectual Stimulation
This leader...challenges status quo and encourages creativity and new ways of doing things
Individualized Consideration
This leader...fosters supportive relationships and keeps great communication
Theories of Leadership
Great Man Theories
Lives of respected leaders
Qualities leading to "greatness"
Is this a man's world?
Galvanizing experience
Admirable trait
Personal attribute of a leader that hypnotizes followers and compels them to identify with and attempt to emulate the leader

Followers are emotionally attached to this type of leader.

Don't hate me because I'm beautiful.
Great Man Theories
Leadership research
Leadership phenomena
Price Waterhouse v. Ann Hopkins
Leadership in a changing workplace

Trait Approach
Leaders possess characteristics non leaders don't
No consistent relationships found between traits and leadership effectiveness
No operational definitions for leadership traits
Slim Shady
From 1920's and 1930's
Attempted leadership
Successful Leadership
Effective Leadership
Leadership in a changing workplace
Temporary workers
Fuzzy boundaries of jobs
KSAOs of
Managerial Levels
Figure 12.2
SOURCE: Mumford et al (2007)
Increasingly popular
Traditional models were focused on relationship between a single leader/single follower
Teams are separate entity
Virtual teams
Monitoring & Communications challenges
Drop in Work Centers
Unassigned work spaces
Transformational vs. Transactional
Temporary Workers
More likely as organizations become leaner
Uncertain of long term business prospects
Respond to market changes changes quickly
Challenges to leader
More difficult to motivate
Expected to support work groups
Affect permanent employees
Unlikely temps will have same commitment as full time employees
Meaning of "job" is changing
Fuzzy boundaries of jobs
Teams changes individual contributions
Rapid changes in technology & work processes
Are They Different?
In- Group
Out- Group
Women in Leadership
45% of the U.S. workplace
45% of executive, administrative, & managerial positions
50% of those with bachelors degrees
45% with advanced degrees
4% of highest earning in Fortune 500
4% of CEO's in Fortune 500
13% of U.S. Senators
14% of House of Representatives
10% of State govenors
2% of high ranking military officers

Does this Video show in-group or out-group?
Women are as highly qualified as men but hold disproportionately smaller percentage of leadership positions
Differences between Men and Women
Males & Females
Considerable disagreement among researchers
Women still rated lower on likability & desirability as a boss & higher on interpersonal hostility
Women tend to prefer democratic participative styles, men favor autocratic styles
Leader stereotypes as masculine is decreasing over time - especially in certain industries (education)
Men tend to be more assertive; women more extraverted
Men show more tendecy to self promote
Women substantially more tender minded
Male & Female Leaders
Are they Different?
Male & Female Leaders
What is the effect of male- or female- dominated industries on leadership styles?
Women in male-dominated industriues
Men in female-dominated industries
More research is necessary on gender & leadership

1 or more Big Five factors appear directly or indirectly in all leadership theories
Predictors for leader failure more likely found in measures of psychopathology
Big 5 factors emphasize "bright side" of leadership: Effectiveness
Personality & Leadership (cont'd)
Meta-analysis on relationship between personality & leader effectiveness in 3 settings
Characteristics positively associated with leader effectiveness in 3 different environments
Emotional stability
Openness to experience
Emotional stability
Emotional stability
Openness to experience
Cross-Cultural Leadership Studies
Culture afects the way leadership is expressed
and effectiveness of leadership strategies
Cultures can be categorized as:
collectivist or individualistic
high in power distance or low in power distance
participative versus autocratic
individually directed versus team-directed
Cross-Cultural Leadership Studies
Large-scale cross-cultural study of leadership by 170 social scientists & management researchers in over 60 countries

Universal endorsed / rejected leader attributes
Attributes & behaviors accepted / rejected
How does culture influence acceptance / rejection
Effect of presence of a rejected attribute /behavior within a particular culture

Global leadership & organizational behavior
effectiveness (GLOBE)
Examples of Cultural Dimensions Related to Leadership

Universally Accepted
Universal & Culture Specific Aspects of Leadership
Integrity - trustworthy

Charismatic, visionary,
inspirational, encouraging,
motivational, confidence
builder, dynamic

Team oriented - team building,
communicating, coordinating,
Executive oriented, decisive,
intelligent, win-win problem solver
Universally Rejected

Culture Specific

Status conscious
Leadership in a Diverse Environment
Appears that transformational & charismatic leadership are universally valued
Leads to positive performance results & positive attidude reactions
Workplace is becoming less white, less native born, less male, & less young
Implications for leader behavior
Persuade followers to believe they themselves
can make a difference
Judge et al
Reward Power
Coercive Power
potential of supervisor to distribute punishment to subordinates
Legitimate Power
"Right" of a supervisor to influence a subordinate and the obligation of the subordinate to accept the influence
Referent Power
Identification of the subordinate with the supervisor
The desire of the subordinate to be like and act like the supervisor
The power of example
Expert Power
The expertise a supervisor has in a specific area
Power Approach
"Anything you can do I can do
emphasizes the genuineness and integrity of the leader
"Walk more femininely, talk more femininely, dress more femininely, wear make-up, have [her] hair styled, and wear jewelry."
Potential of supervisor to distribute earned rewards
Meet Ann Hopkins.
She needed a "course in charm school".
Behavioral Approach
Researchers at OSU
Kinds of behavior engaged in by people in leadership positions
Inconsistent findings study to study
2 Types of Leadership in Behavioral Approach
Consideration: mutual trust between supervisor and group
Initiation Structure: supervisor organizes and defines group activities & his/her relation to the group
The Shelf life of a Charismatic leader
University of Michigan Studies
The Tyrannical
how groups and leaders interact
task oriented behavior: important part of leader activities. initiating structure.
relations oriented behavior: important part of leaders activities. consideration.
allows subordinates more participation in decision making
more 2 way communication
Ty Pennington
Extreme Makeover Home Edition
the role situations play in leadership
Job maturity: subordinates job-related ability, skills, and knowledge
Psychological maturity: self-confidence & respect of the subordinate
Consequences of Participation: Vroom-Yetton Model
One of the most robust contributions to leadership in the past 50 years
Most important duties of a leader is to make decisions. The model suggests ways to choose decision making strategy.
Received little recent attention
Sparse research results
For the I/O psychologist, working with a client...
What's, in your opinion, the most effective leadership style? Why? What is being a leader in I/O psychology?
Transactional Leadership
More Traditional
They Make CLEAR what behaviors will be rewarded
Social contract

Laissez-faire Leadership
Contrasted with transactional and transformational

Lowest level of leadership

allows followers to work on their own
"Leave it be"

Motivates by:
Communicating Vision
Being a role model
Inspiring w/ passion
Fostering supportive relationships
Geographically or organizationally dispersed members brought together through a combination of telecommunications and information technologies
Substantial changes in last 2 decades
has created a very different work environment for leaders
will be more difficult to establish as the physical distance between leaders/followers increases.
Challenges for a leader is to anticipate how work is evolving and how work roles of team members are integrated
1 stable behavior emerging in the new work environment is Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs)
Is it becuase women don't want leadership positions or they lack ability or do decision makers makers present an obstacle?
If women behaved in an expected (interpersonal) way, they encountered resistance. In contrast, if men behaved in an unexpected (interpersonal) way, there was no such resistance.
Hierarchical Nature of Transformational Leadership
lots of new ideas; deviate from the norm
talkative and opinionated
likes to include everyone involved
Full transcript