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The Keystone Pipeline

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Kyla Garlid

on 9 March 2015

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Transcript of The Keystone Pipeline

The Keystone Pipeline
By Alex Fling, Kyla Garlid, Mila Lesh, and October Yates
What is it?
A pipeline system to transport
synthetic crude oil
from the oil sands of
, Canada, and crude oil from the
northern United States
, primarily to refineries in the Gulf Coast of Texas
Only 0.02%
of Canada’s boreal forest has been disturbed by oil sands mining operations over the past 40 years.
"Since the 1960s,

about 10%

of the active mining footprint has been or is being reclaimed by industry. In addition, all lands disturbed by oil sands development
must be fully reclaimed under Canada’s laws.
Industry understands the need to hasten reclamation and we are focused on delivering on these expectations."
It's not
Lowering Emissions
Oil sands account for only
0.14% of global GHG emissions
Producers have
reduced carbon dioxide emissions
per barrel
by 26%
since 1990 and continue to reduce emissions intensity
TransCanada is
required by Alberta law
to do so, or contribute in other ways to
reduce emissions

paying a
carbon levy
of $15 per ton into a technology fund aimed at
to further reduce emissions
Many other oil exporting countries have
no such requirements
Fact is that a
2013 report
by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences concluded that oil sands crude is
no more corrosive
than comparable heavy crudes, which are already transported by pipeline in the U.S., and in many cases may be
less corrosive
“Pipelines that carry this
toxic tar sands
fuel are a
direct threat
to our own drinking water supplies.”

- Robert Redford
...Well Not Really
The global
demand for all forms of energy
is expected to increase
35% by 2035
because of
economic growth
and improving quality of life in developed and developing countries, according to the International Energy Agency
"Canadian oil sands is exactly the kind of energy
we can no longer afford
"Canadian oil sands crude is
the dirtiest oil
on the planet.”
Californian and Venezuelan heavy oils are
as or more greenhouse gas intensive
than Canadian oil sands crude
Oil sands crude is
9% more intensive
than the U.S. crude supply average on a wells-to-wheels basis, according to IHS CERA, and our industry is working to further
reduce these numbers
For example, crude oil produced from the most recent oil sands mining operations, on a life-cycle basis, is
2% more GHG intensive
than the average barrel refined in the U.S.
Tar Sand Oil
We can have both
They have the

third-largest oil reserve

in the world, behind Venezuela and Saudi Arabia
Canada is defining itself as an
energy superpower
The Truth is...
If the U.S. passes up this project to build keystone,
TransCanada will sell the oil anyway
, they'll build pipelines to their east coast, to their west coast, and they'll send it to the Gulf of Mexico via rail
Sending oil by rail
releases many more greenhouse gas emissions
than putting it in a pipeline
Money, Money, Money...
The Keystone XL Pipeline project is estimated to
bring in $20 billion
of private sector investment into the American economy
Job Creation
The Keystone Pipeline would create
20,000 direct jobs
, spur the creation of
spin-off jobs
Oil Dependence
The U.S. has consumed approximately
18 million barrels per day
of petroleum products per year over the last 10 years.
Stable North American Energy
Safety of Project
The Keystone XL Project has undergone a
thorough and comprehensive
almost three-year review process, and TransCanada has agreed to comply with
57 additional special conditions
developed for the project by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration
This project would
help our recovering economy
by creating thousands of high-wage manufacturing and construction jobs
Across the U.S. construction has been one of the
hardest-hit industries
in the last three years, so this project comes at a time when
jobs are most needed
The existing
1,661-mile Keystone Pipeline
system became operational in June 2010.
Has the ability to transport roughly
591,000 barrels of crude oil daily
, non-stop from Alberta, Canada to market hubs in the Midwest and Texas
According to TransCanada, the Keystone XL Pipeline expansion will increase capacity of the Keystone system to approximately
1.1 million barrels of crude oil per day by 2013
Beckrich, Amanda. "Tar Sands and the Keystone
XL Oil Pipeline." Nsta.org. The Science Teacher, n.d. Web.
Calmes, Jackie. "In Oklahoma, Obama Declares
Pipeline Support." Nytimes.com. The New York Times, n.d. Web.
"Celebrity Opposition to KXL Heavy on Drama, Light on Facts |
TransCanada Corporation Blog." TransCanada Corporation Blog. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Dec. 2013.
Green, Gene. "U.S. Needs the Keystone Pipeline."
Houston Chronicle. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Dec. 2013.
"Keystone XL Pipeline Project." Keystone XL Pipeline. N.p., n.d.
Web. 05 Dec. 2013.
"Keystone XL Supports American Energy Security Ambitions |
TransCanada Corporation Blog." TransCanada Corporation Blog. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Dec. 2013.
Lizza, Ryan. "The President and the Pipeline."
The New Yorker. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Dec. 2013.
"One Thing Obama Can Do: Decide The Fate Of
The Keystone Pipeline." NPR. Npr.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2013.
Popovich, Nadja. "The Giant Pipeline: An
Expanded Keystone XL Pipeline Would Bring Tar Sands Oil from Canada to Texas Posing a Major Risk to Waterways: Interview with Alex Moore, Friends of the Earth." Emagazine.com. N.p., n.d. Web.
The EIA forecast in 2012 stated that the U.S. will continue to import
7.5 million bbl/d into 2035
to meet its needs.
much-needed oil
will allow refineries to create products that we all rely on every day —
for our vehicles,
aviation fuels
, and
diesel fuels
to help transport goods throughout the continent.
So do these people....
Want to drive
this car?
motorcycle needs oil
and these
so does this
and this
and this
and this
cruise ship
and this
need oil to get to where we need to go
As the
largest single exporter
of oil to the U.S. and a stable energy partner, Canada has and will continue to help
our continued
dependence on OPEC
Polls have consistently shown that the
American public
, when given the choice, overwhelmingly
prefer buying oil from Canada
rather than the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
“As long as I’m president, America is going to be pursuing an

all-of-the-above energy strategy
Yes, we’ll develop as much
oil and gas

as we can, in a safe way, but we’re also going to develop

wind power and solar power

and advanced biofuels.”
- Barack Obama

President Obama rejected TransCanada’s initial path through Nebraska’s
Ogallala Aquifer
— a route many Nebraskans opposed — but the company will resubmit its application, with an
alternate route
Ogallala Aquifer
“And as long as I’m president, we’re going to
keep on encouraging oil development
and infrastructure, and we’re going to do it in a way that
protects the health and safety
of the American people.”
- Barack Obama
The entire project will cost approximately
$7 billion

$6.65 billion would be spent on:
materials and supplies
While the share of
renewable sources
of energy is growing, most economists agree that the majority of growing global energy demand will be met by
fossil fuels
for the foreseeable future
Pay out
$5 billion
in taxes to
counties over the project's lifetime
of U.S. planes, trains, and motor vehicles rely on oil
13.6 million
barrels of oil each day
U.S. consumes
of the world's oil annually
TransCanada has already indicated its interest in building the pipeline to the west to supply crude oil to China
This would be more
detrimental to the environment
because China does not adhere to the same standard of air quality regulations as the U.S.
Economically recoverable at today’s oil prices
There are
>170 billion barrels
of recoverable oil known to be in Alberta’s oil sands
This important resource is being developed with a major focus on
reducing environmental impacts on land, air, and water
Tar sand is a combination of clay, sand, water, and bitumen (tar)
Will help keep
oil prices relatively low
growth potential
(less than 5% has been produced)
GHG emissions could be minimized through CCS (
Carbon Capture and Storage
sending steam through
one pipe and making the bitumen less viscous, the bitumen can be pumped back to the surface through another pipe
Full transcript