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History of Photography

A Presentation
by

Liliana R

on 5 May 2011

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Transcript of History of Photography

People Who Made it Happen Technology Changes and How they Affected Photography Styles of Photography and their changes Fashion Underwater Candid Louis Daguerre Hammilton Smith Helen Levitt Frederick Scott Archer George Eastman Dorothea Lange Brassai Minor White Mapplethorpe Galen Rowel Galen Rowel was an American nature photographer. He photographed landscapes that he called "dynamic landscapes". He started a new kind of nature photography where he participated in the scenes instead of just being an observer. Not only did Rowell photograph, but he also wrote 18 books on subjects like mountaineering, photography, visual cognition, and humanitarian and environmental issues. He also wrote many articles for magazines. Joseph Nicephore Joseph Nicephore took the first photogravure etching. He also experimented with taking pictures by coating pieces of paper in different chemicals and solutions. He took the first photograph using heliography. Louis Daguerre worked on improving heliography with Joseph Nicephore. They developed physautotype, a process that uses lavender oil. He kept experimenting after Nicephore's death and created another process which he named Daguerreotype. Helen Levitt was known for her street photography. It started when she took photographs of children's chalk drawings which were part of New York's children's street culture. Besides being a photgrapher, American Hamilton Smith was also an astronomer and a scientist. He patented the tintype photographic process. Tintypes are when a photograph is made by creating a direct positive on a sheet of iron that is blackened and used as a support for collodion photographic emulsion. Among his many other achievements are constructing the largest telescope of his time and writing one of America's first science textbooks. Before Frederick Scott Archer invented the photographic collodion process, he was a sculptor who found calotype photograpy useful for taking pictures of his subjects. He didn't like that the contrast and the fact that pictures had poor definition so he started experimenting and invented the photographic collodion process in 1848. It had the fine detail of the daguerreotype and was able to print many paper copies like the calotype. He also developed the ambrotype with Peter Frey. Alfred Stieglitz Annie Leibovitz George Eastman created the Eastman Kodak company. Inventing roll film helped bring photography to ordinary people. Roll film also created the foundation for motion pictures. Mass production of photography equipment was what the Eastman Kodak company did. It was one of the first to to so. George Eastman created the Kodak camera which was designed for roll film in 1888. Created by Eastman in 1889, flexible transparent film was another product his company manufactured. Dorothea Lange was a documentary photographer and a photojournalist. She took pictures of the effects of the Great Depression and also did work for the Farm Security Administration. She photgraphed poor rural people who were hit hard by the depression. She also photographed sharecroppers, unemployed people, and homeless people. She also recorded the internment of Japanese-Americans. Her photographs were so obviously criticizing the government that the Army impounded them. Dorothea Lange strongly influenced documentary photography. SOME OF LANGE'S WORK The Migrant Mother Alhazen Alhazen was an ancient scientist from Iraq. He experimented using mirrors which helped lead to cameras many centuries later. He also researched catoptrics, the study of optical systems using mirrors. Some of his ideas Eastman's Kodack Co. was the first to mass produce roll film and a roll film camera. George Eastman founded the Kodak Company. Some of Alhazen's work Alhazen on money Brassai, actually Gyula Halasz, was a Hungarian photographer who gained fame in France in the 20th century. He was also a sculptor and filmmaker. He took pictures of Paris streets. Taking pictures for Harper's Bazaar was something he also did. He was also a founder of the Rapho photography agency. Some of Brassai work Minor white was an American photographer who began his career in Portland, OR. He used equivalents in his pictures. Equivalents are pictures that use structural and light elements to create an emotion or to reflect something inside of the viewer. It also uses a lot of symbolism. White also co-founded the magazine Aperture. Alhazen Minor White He helped found Aperture magazine Ansel Adams Besides being a photographer, Ansel Adams was an environmentalist. An American, Adams was famous for his nature scenes of the American west and especially Yosemite National Park. He also experimented with soft-focus, etching, Bromoil process, and others. One of his photographs, The Tetons and the Snake River, was chosen as one of the 115 pictures that were brought aboard the spacecraft Voyager to show to possible aliens. The Tetons and Snake River Church, Taos Pueblo 1942 Some of Ansel Adam's work CLose up of leaves in "Glacier National Park" An American photographer, Robert Mapplethorpe was known for his black and white portraits, photos of flowers and nude men. The homosexual nature of many of his photographs sparked controversy over the public funding of artworks. He also liked photographing flowers, especially calla lillies and orchids, and celebrities such as Andy Warhol, Deborah Harry, Richard Gere, Peter Gabriel, Grace Jones, and Patti Smith, his longtime roommate. Some of Maplethorpe's work Alfred Stieglitz, an American photographer, played a crucial role in making photography a recognized art form. He wrote about photography's technical aspects as well as its relation to painting. His photographs also appeared in many magazines including "The American Amateur Photographer" of which he was also co-editor. He was also married to painter Georgia O'Keefe. He also owned many galleries over his lifetime in which he showed his own work as well as the work of his photographer and painter friends. Some of Stieglitz's work A Venetian Canal Georgia O'Keefe Winter- Fith Avenue Georgia O'Keefe's hands Strand Paul Strand, an American photographer and filmmaker, also helped establish photography as an art form. Some of his work experimented with formal abstactions while other works were used as a tool for social reform. As cofounder of Photo League, he was part of a group of photographers who supported their social and political views with their photography. In his later years, he lived in France, in part to escape the anti-communist McCarthyism. Although he was not in the party, many of his colleagues and friends were in the party or were socialist writers. Some of Strand's work Some of Rowell's work Imogen Cunningham Known for her photographs of botanicals, nudes and industry, American photographer Imogen Cunningham went through many phases in her photography. For example, in around 1913, she was into doing portrait work and still life. Then in the 1920's, she had an obsession with flowers. During 1923-1925, she made a study of the magnolia flower. In the 1930's, she once again focused on humans. She also got a job at Vanity Fair taking pictures of celebrities with out their makeup. Some of Cunningham's work Besides being a photographer, Tina Modotti was also an actress, a model, and a political activist. Her photography can be divided into two categories, romantic and revolutional. She took many of her photos in Mexico and eventually lived there. She also joined the Mexican Communist Party. Tina Modotti Some of Modotti's work Gordon Parks Not just a photographer, American Gordon Parks was many things. He was a poet, a musician, a novelist, a journalist, an activist and a film director. In 1941, he started to chronicle Chicago's South Side black ghettos. As an African American, Parks encountered a lot of racism. When he was in Washington DC taking pictures, he took his famous photo "American Gothic Washington D.C.". Parks was also a fashion photographer. He actually started his career as a fashion photographer. Later, he got a job at Vogue. In 1948, he got a job at Life. He photographed things like sports, Broadway, party, racial segregation, and portraits of Malcom X, Stokely Carmichael, Muhammad Ali, and Barbra Streisand. He also wrote a story on a poor Brazilian boy who was dying. The donations people sent saved his life and bought his family a new home. Some of Parks's work American Gothic Washington DC In 1970, Leibovitz got a job with Rolling Stone magazine. She was chief photographer for 10 years and her intimate photographs of celebrities helped shape Rolling Stone's look. One of her famous photographs was of John Lennon and Yoko Ono that was taken 5 hours before Lennon was shot and killed. In the 1980's, she got a job with Vanity Fair photographing celebrities for an international advertising campaign. In 1991 she was the first woman to show her photos at the National Portrait Gallery. In 2007, she was hired by Disney to take a series of photographs of celebrities in many different scenes and roles for a Disney Parks campaign. Collodion Process The collodion process was a process where a mixture of bromide, iodide, or chloride salts are poured onto a glass plate and is left sitting for a few seconds. Then, the plate is put into a silver nitrate solution which turns the bromide, iodide, or chloride salts into silver bromide, silver iodide, or silver chloride. While the plate is still wet, it is placed inside a camera and exposed. The plate is developed using a solution of iron sulfate, acetic acide, and alcohol in water. This process was the first to use make a negative on a transparent thing. It was inexpensive and had a relatively fast exposure time of only a few seconds. The only disadvantage was that the plate had to be wet, which gave the photographer only about 10 minutes to complete everything. Some of Leibovitz's work Her famous photograph of John Lennon Alice in Wonderland for Disney's campaign Polaroid Manufactured by the Polaroid Corporation, the modern polaroid camera, also known as the instant camera, was invented by American scientist Edwin Land in 1948. An instant camera is a camera that prints out a developed image almost directly after you have taken a picture. The first instant camera was invented by Samuel Shlafrock in 1923. The instant camera changed photography in many ways. One of the changes was that it took a LOT less time to get a developed image. Also, it allowed the photographer to adjust their composition or lighting immediately based on the print. Instant cameras were used in many different ways including passport photos, ID photos, and ultrasound photos. It even changed law inforcement, as police officers and criminal investigators used polaroids to take unchangeable photos at the crime scene. Some examples of polaroid cameras Camera Obscura The Camera Obscura is an invention that projects an image onto a screen. The first Camer Obscura was built by Alhazen and is a box with a hole in it that flips the image upside down and then projects it. An 18th century version used mirrors for an image that was right-side-up. The Camera Obscura led to photography as it was adapted by Joseph Nicephore, Louis Daguerre, and others. Calotype Introduced by William Fox Talbot, the Calotype was an early photographic process that used paper that was covered in a layer of silver iodide. When it is hight by light, the silver iodide decomposes to just silver and iodide. The pure silver is then oxidized using a solution of silver nitrate, acetic, and gallic acids called gallo-nitrate. The rest of the silver iodide is washed away and the image is visible since the silver has turned black. To stabilize the image, potassium bromide is used. You can also use salted paper and use silver chloride with silver nitrate. The silver stays and the chlorine evaporates. It is then oxidized and stabilized using hydrosulphite of soda. This process creates a negative image from which positives can be made. This affected photography because you could now make multiple prints of a picture. The daguerrotype could only make a positive and it was hard to make another. Brownie Cameras Made by the Eastman Kodak Company, Brownie cameras were a series of cheap and simple cameras. First introduced in 1900, they were ment for as camera anyone could afford use with the popular slogan "You push the button, we do the rest." Named after the popular cartoon by Palmer Cox, the Brownies were wildlly popular, selling millions between 1952 and 1967. Originally a cardboard box with a simple meniscus lense, they cost only 1 dollar. The Brownie changed photography in that it introduced the snapshot and popularized low-cost photography. Some examples Silver Bromide Silver bromide is a chemical compound consisting of silver and bromine. It is pale yellow in color and is a water insoluble salt. Being unusually sensitive to light has allowed silver halides to become the basis of modern photography materials. Silver bromide is used in many types of film. It changed photography in that it made the whole thing possible. I suppose we might have found other ways to capture images but silver bromide is why photography is what it is now. Tintypes Created by making a direct positive on a sheet of iron that has been blackened by painting, laquering, or enamling, tintypes are used as a support for collodion emulsion process. Tintypes were used in fairs and at carnivals because a photograph could be made in only a few minutes. When making a tintype, an underexposed negative is made on a collodion photographic emulsion and then put against a dark metal background to make it look like a positive. Tintypes changed photography by making it faster to produce a photograph. It was the most common photographic process until the invention of Kodak's reloadable amateur camera and modern gelatin based processes. Cameras and other equipment Processes and chemicals Daguerrotype Created by Louis Daguerre and Joseph Niecephore Niepce, it was the first photographic process that was commercially successful. A direct positive made in the camera on a silver plated copper plate, the surface is like a mirror. The picture is made directly on the silver and is easily rubbed off. The daguerrotype (as well as the Calotype) changed, or rather began photography as they were both unveiled in 1893 making it the year photography was invented. Cellulose Nitrate Film Cellulose Nitrate, also knowns as nitrocellulose, was a type of film base. Film base is the support that the light sensitive emulsion sits atop. Nitrocellulose Film was the first type of film base that was flexible, plasticized, and transparent. Its only draw back is that it is EXTREMELY flammable. After a while, the film starts to decompose into a gas that is also EXTREMELY flammable. Because it contains oxygen, it is very hard to put out. It can even burn under water. Nitrocellulose film changed photography in that it was the first flexible, transparent, plasticized film base. A daguerrotype of Abraham Lincoln Color Photography Traditionally brought about chemically during the photographic processing phase, color photographs are photographs that use media that are able to represent colors. There are many ways to create colored photographs. For example, you can use different dyes to remove differnent proportions of red, blue, and green. Color photography drastically changed photography. Photos were now able to be almost completely life like. One of the first color photos Flash Powder Flash powder is a mixture of oxidizer and metallic fuel. It was used to make flashes for photography. It is also used in pyrotechnics. This changed photography in that you could take pictures in low light. Flash Bulbs One of the earliest flash bulbs used a magnesium filament and was electronically ignited by the press of the shutter button. These bulbs were one-time-use bulbs and were too hot to handle immediatley afterwards. This changed photography in that instead of a small explosion, a contained flash was produced. CMOS Used for making integrated circuits, CMOS, or complementary metal oxide semiconductors, are used for high-speed photography. In the 1990's CMOS sensor technology revolutionized high-speed photography. Here is a video shot with a Casio EX f1 Light Meter A device used to measure the amount of light, light meters are used to determine the exposure for a photo. Light meters made it a lot easier to get the right exposure when taking pictures. Triacetate Film Triacetate film, or cellulose triacetate, is another type of film base. Chemically similar to cellulose acetate, cellulose triacetate is significantly more heat resistant. Triacetate film is also less flammable than cellulose nitrate film which changed photography. A photograph showing a human's face and usually part of the upper body, portraits were some of the earliest photographs. Usually the person being photographed is looking directly at the camera. Portraits started out being black and white and not very sharp but as the technology changed, there were color portraits that had high definition. Also, each photographer adds their own style to the portraits. When portrait photography was first being done, the portraits pretty much all looked like paintings. Later, as the technology changed, new styles emerged. One technique is placing the subject near a window. Then, depending on the camera angle, different amounts of shadow are captured. One approach to portraiture is constructionist where the photographer creates a feeling or theme around the subject. Portraitism Underwater photography, as the name might suggest is photography underwater using waterproof cameras or a camera in a waterproof covering. When underwater, colors of light, especially red and orange are absorbed by the water. This happens vertically as well as horizontally. Most underwater photographers use flashes to give their photographs more color. Also, they make sure not to stand to far away from their subject. As underwater camera technology has gotten better, underwater photography has changed. The first underwater photographs didn't use flashes. As underwater flashes were developed, they were used to make different types of underwater photographs. Also, the technology to go deep under water has affected underwater photography. With the invention of submarines, it has been possible to take shipwreck photos. Also, one type of underwater photography is called split photography. Pioneered by National Geographic photographer David Doubilet, split photography is were you take a picture that is half underwater and half out of water. Split photography In contrast to traditional photography where everything is carefully composed and thought out, candid photography is about spontaneity. It is unobtrusive and focuses on photographing the subject in its natural state. For example it would be like photographing someone you pass by on the street where they don't pose. They either ignore the camera or don't notice it. Candid photography shouldn't be confused with the paparazzi though. Candid photography isn't about chasing down the subject. The subjects are chosen spontaneously. A master of candid photography was Henri Cartier-Bresson. He traveled all over Europe taking pictures in the streets. He used a leica camera which was small enough that it wouldn't really be noticed. Small cameras made candid photography possible. Another famous candid photographer was Weegee. He was known for his crime scene photos. His photographs showed death as well as life. The first fashion model was Tuscan countess Virginia Oldoini. Photographer Adolphe Braun published a book in 1856 which had 288 photos of her in her court clothes. Advances in printing led to fashion photography in the first decade of the 20th century. French magazines, such as La Mode Practique, were the first to show fashion photos. Vogue, which was taken over by Conde Nast in 1909 also helped start fashion photography. Extra emphasis was placed on staging the shots. Richard Avedon transformed fashion photography with his photos of the modern woman after WWII. Before Richard Avedon, fashion models stood there and showed no emotion. Avedon's photos showed the models expressing emotion and in action. Some of Weegee's work Some of Henri Cartier Bresson's work A History of Photography A Prezi By
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