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Ch. 8-2: Westward Expansion: Indian Removal
Transcript of Ch. 8-2: Westward Expansion: Indian Removal
(1820) 120,000 Native Americans lived east of the Mississippi River.
(1844) 30,000 were left.
Why were Native Americans forced to migrate?
Clearing the land for...
Cotton Plantations in the South
Grain cultivation in the North.
Civilzation! The building of an Empire. Open the vast lands to agriculture, trade, markets, and money.
The Development of the Modern Capitalist Economy.
Louisiana Purchase (1803)
The territory was purchased from the French.
Roughly 800,000 sq. miles.
Doubled the size of the United States
Extended the American Empire from the Appalachian Mountains, across the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains.
War of 1812:
Between the United States and Great Britain .
for the United States: conquer Canada, end the Indian "menace" on the frontier, and open land for settlement.
Tecumseh and other Native Americans side with the British. Why?
"Every year our white intruders become more greedy...oppressive... Are we not being stripped day by day of the little that remains of our ancient liberty?"
Tecumseh, Shawnee Chief 1811.
Seminole War of 1817:
Andrew Jackson's military campaign across the Florida boarder.
Destroys tribal villages and farms, seized Spanish Forts.
Spain was "persuaded" to sell FLA to the US Gov't.
Wars of Conquest
"Listen... The truth is, the great body of the Creek Chiefs and warriors did not respect the power of the United States... We bleed our enemies in such cases to give them their senses."
ndian Removal Act (1830)
Signed by President Andrew Jackson
Passed by Congress and hailed as "the greatest question that ever came before Congress"
A policy of removal:
Forced migration of Native Americans from the east to lands west of Mississippi River.
70,000 Native Americans were forced westward!
Consequences of the Removal Act...
Trail of Tears (1838)
17,000 Cherokee Native Americans are moved westward.
There were 645 wagons, and people marching to Oklahoma. Federal agents leading the way.
4000 die. From sickness, of drought, from the climate, and by Federal Agents.
In 1838, President Van Buren spoke to Congress...
"It affords great pleasure to appraise to Congress of the entire removal of the Cherokee Nation of Indians to their new homes west of the Mississippi. The measures authorized by Congress at its last session have had the happiest effects."
Who is he holding?
How does he want to deal with Native Americans?
The Northwest Ordinance (1787):
*Plan by Congress for expansion and settlement in the Mid-West of the United States.
*Established Reservations for Native Americans living there.
*Admits new 6 states into the Union by 1858.