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Transcript of Artificial Sweeteners
to help people maintain a healthy weight
to reduce the amount of calories Why are artificial sweeteners used? History Artificial Sweeteners were... first created in 1879
not available to all people
used for medicinal purposes such as diabetes History banned by the Food and Drug Association (FDA)
not reaching health standards
requiring a warning label Artificial Sweeteners were... Researchers conducted safety testing and the products were placed back on the market. San Antonio Heart Study Experiment Conducted research during 1980's
Examined 3,682 adults
Recorded body mass index (BMI)
Discovered the average BMI increased by 1.78 kg/m^2 among the group that used artificial sweeteners American Cancer Society Experiment Conducted a study specific to women around the same age and with the same health conditions
After 1 year, the women were examined again
Of the women who consumed the artificial sweeteners, 2.7% to 7.1% of the women gained weight when compared to the initial weight. The American Cancer Society experiment and the San Antonio Heart Study experiment had similar results. The results displayed that people gained weight (even if it was a small amount) when consuming artificial sweeteners. Purdue University Experiment Research conducted in 2008
Terry Davidson & Susan Swithers from the Ingestive Behavior Research Center
Goal of testing- see how artificial sweeteners affect calorie intake and weight gain Research Research Research Used rats instead of humans
Didn't know how the testing would affect the body Research Purdue University Experiment Research Purdue University Experiment Group 1 Rats Group 2 Rats regular feed
yogurt with no-calorie saccharin regular feed
yogurt with regular sugar Purdue University Experiment Research Researchers measured calorie intake, weight gain, and body temperature of the rats in both groups. Research Purdue Researchers Speculations The researchers have numerous speculations about how artificial sweeteners affect the human body. However, it is important to note that the effects the products have on humans and rats are very different because humans are more complex than rats. Researchers can only predict what might be outcome in humans.
Artificial sweeteners will cause the body to be "conditioned to no longer associate sweetness with calories"
If rats take in more calories and gain more weight when consuming artificial sweeteners, then it is predicted that humans will have the same response Research Effects of Artificial Sweeteners on the Body Ingestive and digestive reflexes become confused when they prepare for sugar but receive artificial sweeteners instead.
When the body becomes accustomed to artificial substitutes and it has pure sugar, it fails to relate sweetness with calories. The body consumes more food and burns up less energy. Natasha Carr Sources American Psychological Association. “Artificial Sweeteners Linked To Weight Gain.” ScienceDaily. Science Daily LLC., 11 February 2008. Web. 10 Nov. 2010. <http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/02/080210183902.htm>.
Artificial Sweeteners. Dictionary.com, LLC. 2010. Web. 29 Nov. 2010.
Boyles, Salynn. “Do Sweeteners in Diet Soda Increase Weight?” WebMD.N.p., 11 Feb. 2008. Web. 10 Nov. 2010. <http://www.webmd.com/diet/news/20080211/artifical-sweeteners-increase-weight>.
Carr, Natasha. In-Class Survey. 19 Nov. 2010.
“Commodities: The Sugar Situation.” Time. 28 Jan. 1946. Web. 30 Nov. 2010. <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,855359,00.html>.
Starr Hull, Janet. “Artificial Sweeteners.” Total Health. 27.1.31-32. Print.
Swithers, Susan. “Artificial Sweeteners Linked to Weight Gain.” American Psychological Association.N.p., N.d., Web. 10 Nov. 2010. <http://news.uns.purdue.edu/x/2008a/080211SwithersAPA.html>.
Tsang, Gloria. “Which Sweeteners Are Safe?” Health Castle. N.p., June 2004. Web. 25 Nov. 2010. < http://www.healthcastle.com/sweeteners.shtml>.
Yang, Qing. “Gain Weight by “Going Diet?” Artificial Sweeteners and the Neurobiology of Sugar Cravings.” Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. (2010): 101-106. Print. According to Dictionary.com, artificial sweeteners are defined as “non-caloric substitutes that are often intensely sweeter than sugar such as aspartame, acesulfame potassium, saccharin, and sucralose.” a few well-known brands on the market are Splenda, Equal, NutraSweet, and Sweet ‘N’ Low. Artificial sweeteners are not a strong
alternative to pure sugar because the
products can actually cause weight gain instead of working to keep the pounds off. Which do you prefer? Starting My Research 1st topic was pediatric rehabiliation with a focus on pediatric physical therapy
Couldn't find enough sources
The few sources I did find were too detailed and advanced for this paper. 6/7 people surveyed prefered pure sugar over artificial sweeteners. Thesis: The companies that produce artificial sweeteners today target users who suffer from health issues such as diabetes or have the aspiration to lose weight. Limited Knowledge Many freshman students have limited knowledge on the effects artificial sweeteners have on the body.
The survey revealed that only 2 out of 20 students knew artificial sweetening products can cause weight gain. WWII Sugar Scarcity Companies were running low on sugar
Sugar prices sky rocketed
Artificial sweeteners became the alternative because they were inexpensive History History Price of sugar was lowered
People continued to use artificial sweeteners
Sweeteners offered great taste and little calories
The use of artificial sweeteners changed from cost-friendly to health reasons WWII Sugar Scarcity Experiments were conducted to provide evidence that artificial sweeteners are not the best way to go when trying to regulate weight. Research Purdue Research Results Startling results
Not what people would expect
The no-calorie saccharin yogurt caused the rats to take in a greater amount of calories and not limit or cut back their food intake at later meals. Frequently Found in Common Food Items Artificial sweeteners are found in:
foods labeled "light"
To avoid artificial sweeteners people should observe the product label and look for key slogans such as "sugar free", "no sugar added", and "carb-smart" on the packaging. Safe and Healthy Alternatives Natural or nutritive sweetening products
These are a much healthier form of sweetening because they
offer a few calories to the diet instead of zero. A consumer needs to be aware that each type of sweetener, artificial or natural, has its own health warnings. One must conduct efficient research to ensure a healthy diet is achieved.
Currently nutritive sweeteners are the healthiest products on the market; however, the best solution for any sweetener is moderation. Summary It is crucial to educate people on the statistics and research that has been conducted. The evidence reveals that artificial sweeteners are not the best source of weight loss. The non-natural sweeteners do not reach the intended goal, but instead are counterintuitive of what the products were designed to do. Creating awareness among people who enjoy the sugary taste of sweeteners is a key factor in eliminating the misconception of artificial sweeteners.