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Ecosystems and Communities

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Greg Evans

on 13 April 2014

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Transcript of Ecosystems and Communities

Ch. 4 - Ecosystems and Communities
4.1 - The Role of Climate
4.2 - What Shapes an Ecosystem?
4.3 - Land Biomes
A biome is a particular physical environment that contains characteristic plants and animals.
4.4 - Aquatic

determined mainly by depth, flow, temperature, and water chemistry
Climate and Microclimate
Climate is important in determining a biome's characteristics.
2 main factors in determining climate:
temperature & precipitation
The Major Biomes
Tropical Rain Forest
Tropical Dry Forest
Tropical Savanna
Temperate Grassland
Temperate Woodland
and Shrubland
Temperate Forest
Northwest Coniferous Forest
Boreal Forest
Rain Forest
Dry Forest
hot & wet year round
nutrient-poor soil
ferns, broad-leaved evergreens, orchids, vines
jaguars, monkeys, toucans, insects, anacondas, boas
warm year round, alternating wet & dry seasons
tall deciduous trees, orchids, aloes
tigers, monkeys, elephants, monitor lizards
Tropical Savanna
warm temps, seasonal rainfall, frequent fires
perennial grasses, fire-resistant trees or shrubs
lions, cheetahs, zebras
low precip., variable temps, mineral rich soil
cacti, bushes, plants with short life cycles
lizards, insects, rattlesnakes, coyotes
Woodland & Shrubland
moderate precip., cold winters & hot summers, fertile soil
perennial grasses resistant to drought, fire, and cold
wolves, bears, rabbits, hawks, insects, snakes
hot dry summers, cool moist winters, nutrient -poor soil
evergreen shrubs, fragrant oily herbs that grow during winter and die in summer
foxes, mice, quail, lizards, snakes
year-round precip., warm summer, cold winter, fertile soil
deciduous trees, conifers, flowers/herbs, mosses
deer, bears, turkeys, skunks
Northwestern Coniferous Forest
abundant precip. during Fall, rocky, acidic soil
Fir, spruce, hemlock, redwood
bear, elk, deer, owls, bobcats
Boreal Forest
long cold winters, short mild summers, nutrient poor soil
coniferous trees, some deciduous tree, small berry-bearing shrubs
timberwolf, moose, beaver, weasel-like animals
strong winds, low precip., permafrost, long cold and dark winters
mosses, lichens, sedges
migratory birds, arctic foxes, caribou
Land biomes are grouped geographically and aquatic ecosystems are grouped according to abiotic factors
What are the abiotic factors in this ecosystem?
Freshwater Ecosystems
Two Main Types:
flowing water ecosystem
standing water ecosystem
Flowing-Water Ecosystems
Ex. rivers, streams, creeks, & brooks
Begin in elevated areas, usually from an underground water source.
As the water flows downhill it picks up dirt and sediment which enables plant life.
Standing-Water Ecosystems
Ex. lakes and ponds
Some water does flow in and out, but most is continually circulated.
Plankton which are tiny free-floating organisms can survive here.
Freshwater Wetlands
An ecosystem in which water covers the soil or is near the surface for at least part of the year.
Very productive ecosystem where insects, fishes, amphibians, migratory birds, and aquatic animals may be found.
3 types:
What is Climate?
is the day to day condition of earths atmosphere at a particular time and place.
is the average year after year conditions of temperature and precipitation in a particular region.
Greenhouse Effect
The natural situation in which atmospheric gases trap energy from the sun.
The Effect of Latitude on Climate
Three Main Climate Zones:
- cold areas where the sun's rays strike at very low angles, found between 66.5 and 90 degrees N and S

- affected by the changing angle of the sun over the course of the year, found between polar and tropic zones

- receive direct or nearly direct sunlight year-round, found between 23.5 degrees N and S
Heat Transport in the Biosphere
we have winds and currents because of the unequal heating of the earth's surface.
Biotic and Abiotic Factors
Biotic Factors - biological influences on an organism within the ecosystem
Abiotic Factors - physical or nonliving factors that shape an ecosystem
A habitat is the area where an organism lives and it includes both biotic and abiotic factors.
The Niche
The full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions.
Snapping Turtle
Community Interactions
- occurs when organisms of the same or different species try to use the same resources at the same time.
Can two species occupy the same niche?
- interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism
- any relationship in which two species live closely together
The resources can be any necessity of life.
Competitive Exclusion Principle - no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time
- both species benefit
- one benefits, the other is harmed
- one organism lives in or on another organism and harms it
Ecological Succession
Primary Succession - succession that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists
The series of predictable changes that occurs in a community over time.
The first species to populate the area is known as the pioneer species, this is often lichens.
Secondary Succession - caused by a disturbance of some kind changes an existing community without removing soil. ie. abandoned farmland or wildfires
Whale-fall Community
Full transcript