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Transcript of Global Cities
Marx foreshadows global capitalism in the late 19th century:
“The need of a constantly expanding market for its products chases the bourgeois over the whole surface of the globe, it must nestle everywhere, settle everywhere, establish connections everywhere.”
“The bourgeoisie, by the rapid improvement of all instruments of production, by the immensely facilitated means of production draws all even the most backward nations into civilization… It compels all nations, on pain of extinction, to adopt the bourgeoisie mode of production; it compels them to introduce what they call “civilization” into their midst, i.e., to become bourgeoisie themselves. In one word, it creates a world in its own image.”
Global South vs Global North
Global North vs. Global South
Urbanization brought industrialization/economic development but this is no longer the case for many cities
Half the world lives on less than $2.50/day
80% of world lives on less than $10/day
The poorest 40% of the world’s population accounts for 5% of global income. The richest 20% accounts for 75% of world income.
Trends will continue. By 2050, 70% of world's population to live in cities
Why do inequalities exist?
Global Cities vs. Megacities
Saskia Sassin argues that Global Cities have become the "command and control" centers of global finance
High risk, fast paced, knowledge based industries
Megacities - 10 billion+ people
Cities drive economic growth, not nations
"Worlding" (Amanya Roy)
Narratives of Globalization
"Orientalism" / Postcolonial Theory
"Taking the Slum out of Slumdog"
Top Down vs. Bottom Up
Appadurai's Deep Democracy
"Developing world" in the US
2008 UN Report found New York to be the ninth most unequal in the world and Atlanta, New Orleans, Washington, and Miami had similar inequality levels to those of Nairobi, Abidjan and Ivory Coast.
But we don't see this because of powerful narratives
"Katrina refugees" controversy
Globalization & Culture
Not just capital but culture, people, ideas, media
Benjamin Barber: Jihad vs. McWorld
Appadurai's 'scapes: ethnoscape, technoscape, finanscape, mediascapes and ideoscapes
More interested in how these 'scapes provide moments of disjunctures (tensions/differences) than similarities
What is Globalization?
“Globalization in its current phase has been described as an unprecedented compression of time and space reflected in the tremendous intensification of social, political, economic, and cultural interconnections and interdependencies on a global scale.” Stegler, p. ix
deterritorialization and supraterritoriality
Territorial boundaries more or less kept things in and out
Society and culture had spatial referents
Everything had its “place” (literally)
In a Globalized World
Distance / Place becomes increasingly irrelevant
Boundaries are increasingly permeable.
Groups and cultures don’t have a territorial basis
New forms of global governance
Unprecedented flows (also immobilities) of capital, people, things, ideas
Is Globalization Good or Bad?
Do TNC/MNC's cause?
Damage to the environment
Exploitation of labor
Weakened nation states
Damage to local cultures & economies