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The Reformation, Baroque, & Rococo - ART 203- Class 3 & 4

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Megan Bylsma

on 19 January 2018

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Transcript of The Reformation, Baroque, & Rococo - ART 203- Class 3 & 4

The Protestant Reformation
The Baroque in Italy & Spain

ART 203
Have you heard about the invention of the shovel?
It was groundbreaking.

Parmigianino - The Madonna with the Long Neck - 1535 - oil
Major Artists & Their Famous(er) Works
Leonardo da Vinci -
Michelangelo -
Raphael -
Giorgione -
Titian -
Major Artists & Their Famous(er) Works
Jacopo da Pontormo -

Agnolo Bronzino -
Michelangelo -
Giulio Romano -
Parmigianino -
Jacopo Tintoretto -
Pietà (oil painting)
Allegory of Venus (oil)
Tomb of Giuliano de Medici (marble)
The Last Judgement (fresco)
Fall of the Giants from Mount Olympus (wall mural)
Jupiter and Io (oil)
The Assumption of the Virgin (fresco)
Correggio -
The Madonna with the Long Neck (oil)
Self-Portrait, 1524 (oil)
The Last Supper (oil)
The Virgin of the Rocks (oil painting)
Vitruvian Man (drawing)
The Last Supper (tempera wall mural)
The Mona Lisa (oil)
Pietà (marble sculpture)
David (marble)
Sistine Chapel Ceiling
La Belle Jardinière (oil painting)
The School of Athens (fresco)
Alba Madonna (oil)
The Tempest (oil painting)
Fête Champêtre - Pastoral Concert (oil)
Fête Champêtre - Pastoral Concert (oil)
Bacchanal (oil)
Venus of Urbino (oil)
Rape of Europa (oil)
- A New Style-
1517 - Martin Luther nails The Ninety-Five Thesis to the church door
at Wittenberg - a challenge and critique of certain Catholic beliefs, practices, and hypocrisies
As large groups began to agree with the ideas of Catholic reform posited by Luther, the authority and power exercised by the Papacy in Rome was challenge and began to splinter.
By 1527 Rome had been sacked by the Habsburgs, Charles V was crowned Holy Roman emperor and in 1530 he re-established the Medici family as rulers of Florence
The sack of Rome cause artists that were living in Rome to flee throughout Europe - influencing the art of the communities they eventually settled in
This spread of art influence, when combined with new sources for commissions, created a specific style that was called Mannerism
Known as a style of the utmost refinement
Defined by:
Virtuoso Display (not clarity or unity)
Did not repeat the canon of beauty found in ancient forms, but instead experimented with proportion, unusual compositions, and figure types.

Personal Expression (which was considered the artist's right as a highly creative thinker)
Religious as well as ancient mythological subject matter
Fluidity of human design to the point of serpentine form
Truly peculiar proportions
Also known for unusually acidic colour (debatable)

Rejects most artistic traditions of the High Renaissance
The Reformation
The Baroque
The Netherlands
For Art History's Purposes
But really the European world looked like this...
Catholic Countries
- Unicorn Tapestries
- Francesco Primaticcio
- El Greco
Matthias Grünewald -
El Greco (The Greek)
Signed his paintings with his real name: Doménikos Theotokópoulos
But Art History just calls him El Greco...
Born in Crete in 1541
Died in Spain in 1614
Inspired by the mystic meditations of the Jesuits and the Carmelites.
Accepted as a great painter in Toledo, but did not have a style liked by King Philip II of Spain.
If everything is highly-contrasted & sharp, sort of bluish, and everyone has gaunt bearded faces, it's El Greco
Trained on Crete (part of the Venetian Republic) in the Venice School tradition (think Giorgione and Titian)
Moved to Venice
Then to Rome
Absorbed some of the Mannernist Style as well as bits of the Venetian Renaissance while in Italy
(Trained in Crete as an Icon Painter as well)
Moved to Toledo Spain in 1577 at age 36
He would remain in Spain until his death in 1614 at the age of 73
The Dormition of the Virgin
tempera and gold on panel,
Venetian School Artist - Jacopo Tintoretto's
The Last Supper
of c. 1593
Burial of Count Orgaz
oil on canvas
St. Stephen & St. Augustine
The Opening of the Fifth Seal
El Greco heavily influenced the work and working philosophy of Pablo Picasso in the early 1900s.
Catholic Germany
Matthias Grünewald
Led a life plagued with misfortune

Very few works of Grünewald survive

Most well known for the
Isenheim Altarpiece
Monastery of St. Anthony in Isenheim near Colmar
Painted for the
A monastery that specialized in treating plague and "St. Anthony's Fire" (a condition caused by eating spoiled rye) sufferers - both conditions specifically cause painful skin conditions
The figures in the Isenheim Altarpiece show close study of the figure and of skin ailments
The figure of Christ is covered in sores to show that He knows the viewer's suffering
Isenheim Altarpiece Fully Open
Inner Wings Open (Third View)
Visit of Saint Anthony to Saint Paul the Hermit
Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons
Outer Wings Open
(Second View)
Closed (First View)
Francesco Primaticcio
Born: 1504, Italy
Died: 1570, France
Influenced by Parmigianino - willowy, elongated forms
Strongly Mannerist
Most important surviving work is the chamber of King Francis I's mistress - the Duchesse d'Etampes
The work has no clear allegorical meaning
The Unicorn in Captivity
Unicorn Tapisteries, c. 1500
Protestant Countries
The Netherlands
Protestant Germany
Albrecht Dürer
Born: 1471, Nuremberg
Died: 1528, Nuremberg
mathematician, and
Early & enthusiastic adopter of the doctrines put forward by Luther
Protestant Reformation
Martin Luther
The Ninety-Five Theses - "Disputation of Martin Luther on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences"
Was not
meant to spark the protests against the Catholic Church that it did
Was a disputation against the selling of indulgences as he had come to believe - while a monk - that forgiveness of sins & entrance to heaven could not be purchased or earned but came only through Christ
By 1520 was beginning to reject the humanistic idea of individual goodness that the Catholic Church had accepted
Luther believed that any human goodness could only come from Christ and be Christ's
The human heart held no goodness and therefore had no ability to access heaven without the work of Christ
If salvation of the soul (assured admittance to heaven) could only come from an individual's faith in the act of Christ's death, & resurrection, then by extension, Luther was saying the Pope served no authoritative purpose in the process
Luther's doctrines and writings became the basis for what is now the Lutheran denomination - although Luther always argued that there should be no sect name as 'Christian' should be enough to identify anyone who believes in the restitution of Christ through faith
Eventually came to see the papacy as an enemy of Christianity
Translated the Latin Vulgate (Catholic Bible) into German and distributed to the laity - which was against the rules of the Catholic Church
Was declared a heretic and an outlaw - which meant anyone could kill him on sight with no legal consequences
Other people during this time were having the same kinds of reactions to the power and doctrine of the Catholic Church
John Calvin

John Knox

Thomas Cranmer

Some of the more famous include:
- basis for the Calvinists
-basis for the Presbyterian
- basis for the Anglican
Protestant Art had a difficult childhood since images to aid worship had been rejected
As well, the importance of the saints and the traditional roles of Mary, John the Baptist, and the baby Jesus had been erased from the religious practices
If salvation came from a personal belief in the sacrificial act of Christ, what place did art hold in their world?
It became either secular, descriptive, or didactic
A didactic image might be something like this:
Lucas Cranach the Elder,
An Allegory of Law and Grace
, ca. 1530
Back to Dürer
Trained as a goldsmith & painter
Revolutionized Printmaking
elevating it to an independent art from
Kind of a Rock Star of the Late Northern Renaissance
Has been compared to Thomas Kinkade in his ability to market his works and create works for the existing market
Work completed before he was 30
The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse
woodcut print, 1498
Part of the
series that made him famous in his lifetime
The Knight, Death, and the Devil
woodcut print
ca. 1513
Adam & Eve
ca. 1504
woodcut print
Mountain Ash = Tree of Life
Fig = Forbidden Fruit of the Tree
of Knowledge
Choleric Temperament (stern/leader)
Sanguine (optimistic/social)
Phlegmatic (calm/thinker)
Melancholic (moody/independent)
How to Deal with Procrastination
The Great Piece of Turf,
Watercolor and gouache on paper
Melencolia I,
The Four Apostles
approx. 7 feet tall
John - open book
- sanguine
Peter - keys
- phlegmatic

Mark - scroll
- choleric
Paul - closed book
- melancholic
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Born: 1472,Germany
Died: 1553, Germany
Father was a painter as well
Court Painter to the Electors of Saxony
Friend of Martin Luther
Known for portraiture as well as working to solve how art could function in the service of Protestantism
Martin Luther
ca. 1530
Portrait of Luther's Father
ca 1527
The Judgement of Paris
ca. 1528
The Ambassadors
Hans Holbein the Younger
Grab your text!
What are the main points about the art of the Reformation in England?
Pieter Aertsen
The Meat Stall
, 1551 oil
Pieter Bruegel the Elder
Born 1525-30
Died 1569
If the paintings have tons of little people in them but otherwise seem normal, it's Bruegel
If the paintings have lots of little people in them but also have a ton of crazy, messed-up stuff, it's Bosch
Often used
- a device where the artist puts the subject of the painting in the background
Works explore:
peasant life
moral allegory
influenced by Bosch (but not in the way you'd think)
Massacre of the Innocents, 1558
The Return of the Herd (Autumn)
, 1565 oil
The Return of the Hunters
, 1565 oil
Peasant Wedding
, ca. 1568 oil
The Blind Leading the Blind,
ca. 1568 tempera
Dulle Griet (Mad Meg)
, 1564 oil
She could plunder in front of hell and return unscathed. - Flemish Proverb
- a term for a bad-tempered, shrewish woman
in Italy, Spain, the Netherlands, England, & France
Pick one of the following:
2. Bernini's The Ecstasy of St. Teresa
3. Caravaggio's The Musicians
4. Artemisia Gentileschi's
Judith Slaying Holofernes
5. Diego Velázquez's Las Meninas (the Maids of Honor)
1. The Baroque in Italy & Spain
Christ Carrying the Cross
Albrecht Dürer, 1512
The Baroque
in the Netherlands
Ruled by the Spanish Habsburgs (same ones that sacked Rome in 1527) until 1581

Northern provinces declared independence in 1581 - Dutch Republic (Holland)

North was mostly Protestant

Flanders - South - recovered by Spain and remained mostly Catholic
Flanders (South)- most art trends & training from Antwerp
most commissions came from the Catholic Church, the royal court, & wealthy merchants
Holland (North) - many schools & centers;
Amsterdam,Haarlem, Utrecht, Leiden, Delft, etc.
Holland's proliferation of artistic centers created a huge variety in styles and a number of master artists
Art in Holland was important to pretty much everyone.
As it was largely Protestant there were no church commissions, but those with any kind of disposable income collected art.
Peter Paul Rubens
Born: 1577, Germany
Died: 1640, Antwerp
One of the leading artists in the Catholic Counter-Reformation.
Trained in -
(where he
was influenced by Greek & Roman sculpture, the Italian Masters & Caravaggio), &
(where he
was influenced by Titian & Raphael)
Work is known for theatricality & illusion of movement (important aspects of the Baroque)
Rubenesque (or Rubensian) - a term for the type of female body Rubens became famous for portraying
Baroque Style
born in Rome but became international
idealized the virtuoso artist who was also a diplomat, advisor, linguist, well-read, & an intellectual
art was theatrical & dramatic
Rubens was well known as a painter of:
Church Commissions
History & Mythology
Laocoon and His Sons, 1601 - sketch
Marchesa Brigida Spinola Doria
5 feet tall now - originally almost 9 feet (possibly)
The Raising of the Cross
, 1610-11 oil on panel
Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus
Marie de' Medici, Queen of France, Landing in Marseilles (November 3, 1600)
oil on canvas
The Three Graces
, 1639 oil
Four Studies of the Head of a Negro
The Still Life Tradition
Frans Snyders
Still Life with Dead Game, Fruits, and Vegetables in a Market
- 1614
Frans Synders
A Fruit Stall
, 1618
Jan Davidsz. de Heem
"Pronk" Still Lifes - "pronk" meaning showy or ostentatious
Still Life with Fruit, Flowers, Glasses and Lobster.
Still Life with Exotic Birds
Rembrandt van Rijn
Born: 1606, Netherlands
Died: 1669, Netherlands
Influenced by Caravaggio through the Utrecht School
Known for a sense of intimacy, personal relationships & emotions
Protestant artist
Willem Claesz. Heda, Still Life with Oysters, a Roemer, a Lemon, and a Silver Bowl 1634
Rachel Ruysch
Still-Life with Bouquet of Flowers and Plums
Rachel Ruysch
Flower Still Life
After 1700
Jan Vermeer
Born: 1632, Netherlands
Died: 1675, Netherlands
The Art of Painting, 1666
From Delft
Produced relatively few paintings
Most depict women in domestic scenes
-"Intimate Genre Painting"
Woman Holding a Balance,
1664 - oil
Pick one of the following categories:
1. The Baroque in France & England
2. The work of Nicolas Poussin
3. The Idyllic Landscapes of Claude Lorrain
4. The Building & Purpose of Versailles
The Night Watch (The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq.)
1642 oil
The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp
1632 oil
AKA: Roccoco
Late Baroque
18th-century artistic movement and style, that influenced:
interior design,
music, and
The Rococo was developed in the early 1700s in Paris as a reaction against the grandeur, symmetry and strict regulations of the Baroque.

Particularly a response to the end of the rule of the Sun King (and the aristocracy's return to Paris).
Differs from Baroque in its more intimate scale and infusion of more opulent fantasy.
Major Artists in France:
Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun
Maurice Quentin de La Tour
Jean-Antoine Watteau
Jean-Honore Fragonard
Jean-Simeon Chardin
Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun
Recognized as one of the most important female painters of the 1700s
Painted many portraits of Marie Antoinette - many considered her the official portraitist of the Queen...
Until the French Revolution...
Then moved around Europe
The Bather
1792 oil
Marie Antoinette
1783 oil
Marie Antoinette
1778 oil
Maurice Quentin de La Tour
Also a Rococo Portraitist

Worked mostly in pastels
Was portraitist to the king of France from 1750 - 1773
Portrait of Madame de Pompadour,
1755. - Pastels
Jean-Antoine Watteau
Major contributor to the invention of the new Rococo style
less formal,
more naturalistic,
less severe,
still theatrical works,
all things that eventually became some of the hallmarks of the Rococo style.
Created paintings that were fantasies of theatrics but had very little, if any, historical or mythological basis.

A gifted painter, the French Academy wanted to accept him as a member, but his paintings defied the Academy's categories - so the Academy invented a new category -
fêtes galantes
(outdoor entertainments).

Works appear on the surface to be simple Rococo froth - the silly, seductions of the rich - but Watteau's work often incorporates a sense of melancholy.

Most of his clients were the bourgeois working class.
A Pilgrimage to Cythera, 1717 oil
The Love Song, ca 1717 oil
Gersaint's Signboard
, 1721 oil
Jean-Honore Fragonard
Works are the epitome of the Rococo Style
Glowing Pastel Colours featured in most of his work are the height of the Rococo aesthetic
The Swing
, 1767 oil
Let's Talk....
Chicago Style!
Project Topic Choice due tonight by midnight (via Blackboard)
The Chicago Style of Citation is a citation style that was invented in Chicago (surprise!) that is specifically formatted to help make research projects easier to read while still giving credit to those that helped the author by supplying information, ideas, and specific and non-specific data.
In post-secondary, Chicago Style Citation is used primarily by the disciplines of history and art history.
Chicago Style is the citation style of choice by most book publishers as the footnotes make for better readability and the inclusive bibliography rules create a better "paper trail of knowledge".
Chicago Style is unique in that you include any source that informs your thinking in the bibliography - not just the ones you directly quote (which is why it is a 'bibliography' and not a 'works cited' or 'references' list).
By including any source that informed your thinking on our topic, you allow your readers to "follow your trail" back to the sources that you followed so they can a) discover it for themselves, and/or b) trace those lines of thinking and research back to the primary publications that started the entire school of thought (however long ago that may be).
A Chicago Style Bibliography has a very specific format:
(And your bibliographies will be graded based on these formatting rules + the number and kind of sources)
(2 books & 1 scholarly article - minimum)
The entries - in the bibliography (which is a different format than the footnotes) - should be formatted as follows:
Lastname, Firstname.
Title of Book: Subtitle
. Place of
Publication: Publisher, Year.
For a book:
Italicized & Capitalized
Hanging Indent
No Page Numbers
For a scholarly article:
Lastname, Firstname. "Article Title."
Journal Name

Volume Number, Issue Number (Year): page range.
Bibliography Entry
Book Example
Rushdie, Salman.
The Ground Beneath Her Fee
t. New
York: Henry Holt, 1999.
Lastname, Firstname.
Title of Book: Subtitle
. Place of
Publication: Publisher, Year.
Bibliography Entry
Journal Example
Lastname, Firstname. "Article Title."
Journal Name
volume number, issue number (Year): page range.
Tousley, Nancy. "Tracing a History: Gisele Amantea."
20, no. 1 (2003): 63-65.
For a full Chicago Style Aid go to:
To download the RDC Library Chicago Guide Handout check out the pdf on Blackboard
The Bibliography you hand in next week should look like this:
Your last name
Page number
Hanging Indent
Order by Author
Last Name
Not arranged by source types
The Power of Art: Rembrandt
ART 203
The Baroque (con't)
& The Rococo

Diamond Shaped Composition
Shows a new dynamism of movement - the epitome of drama of the Baroque
From the Marie de' Medici
Part of a cycle of 21 paintings that glorify Marie de'Medici, widow of Henry IV and mother of Louis XIII - kings of France.
The Nereids
Celebration of Marie's arrival to France after having been safely accompanied oversea by Neptune and his Nereids
After re-marrying in the 1630s, Rubens' work shows more settled scenes of love and family
May be a still life but it's all about Baroque drama here!
Seller greets you - the buyer
He doesn't notice the young pickpocket
All the prized (unbutchered) game you could possibly want!
In true Baroque style, the action lives on - in the depiction of a cock fight
While the drama is heightened by the cat lurking under the table
Watteau's reception piece for the French Academy - an evocation of love with elements of classical mythology and melancholy
Watteau's last painting
Whoever stole my copy of Microsoft Office is in big trouble. You have my Word. . .
A Question of Breasts . . .
Flip through your textbook. How many exposed breasts on the Virgin Mary can you find?
Fun fact: Showing one breast - a high youthful breast - was sometimes a signal of chastity, virginity and innocence.
Showing one breast - a lower, more matronly breast - was a sometimes a signal of a maternal, nurturing, loving character
It could also signal high-born nobility
Showing two breasts was often a signal of low moral standing
Sometimes. . .
Chapter 20
A still life known as a 'gamepiece'
We interrupt your regularly scheduled chronology to talk about Art and Science! And Melons!
Notice these Melons
This painting has nothing to do with what we've been looking at except it's from the same time period (Totally different geographical area). It's by
Giovanni Stanchi of Rome c. 1645-1672
Notice these melons
Very similar to those in Synder's painting
According to some horticulturalists, Stanchi's painting tells a story of rapid breeding of watermelon and cantaloupe in the 500 years between the 1600s and now.
But Abraham Brueghel's
Still Life of Fruit and Flowers
of 1660

shows that during the same time period, there were also some varieties of watermelon more similar to our version.
This leads others to believe that there was variation between watermelon varieties or that Stanchi's melon was flawed.
Argument 1: Stanchi's segmented watermelon is not just an under ripe or sub-par fruit
A series of arguments to consider:
evidence 1: black seeds denote ripe fruit
evidence 2: Stanchi's fruit was considered to be a prime enough example of the variety to be included in a painting (and these paintings were almost always about ideas of abundance, wealthy, etc.)
Rebuttal: Stanchi's fruit
an example of what was seen as unusual fruit
it is included in the painting as something interesting
Rebuttal: No rebuttal possible
Either of the positions (that Stanchi's fruit shows what watermelons looks like usually 500 years ago OR that Stanchi's fruit is not an indicator of melon changes over time) could be correct.
The answer is not necessarily the important part, but to think about what is being seen in the painting!
Starter Bibliography due next week
What was Michelangelo?
Just a Sculptor?
A Sculptor who also painted?
Because his sculpting (and painting) is so superb Michelangelo's drawing talents are rarely discussed
Let's discuss his drawings!
Opposite side of the paper from the slide before with the legs.
Opposite side of the page . . .
He shared his paper with his students!
Student drawn profiles
Michelangelo's dragon
Vasari was one of the first art historians
Full transcript