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Science Terms

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Kepasini Guna

on 24 December 2012

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Transcript of Science Terms

Kepasini Guna Science Terms Ecology Abiotic Habitat Biotic Population Community Ecosystems A place where a species lives. It can be terrestrial (land) or aquatic (water). Ecosystems Producers Producers is the first trophic level. Producers are able to make their own food. Producers are plants such as leaves, trees, grass and flowers. Primary consumers Secondary consumers Secondary consumers or omnivores/carnivores eat primary consumers. Teritary Consumers Tertiary consumers eat secondary consumers. Biotic things are living things. It includes bacteria, plants, animals, and humans too. Abiotic Abiotic things are non living things. It includes soil, water, air, rocks and minerals. Secondary consumers is the third trophic level. Secondary consumers are omnivores and carnivores. Who are
Carnivores? . . . Carnivores are animals that eat only animals. Who are omnivores? . . . . Omnivores are people or animals that eat both animals and plants. Primary consumers is the second trophic level. Primary consumers are herbivores. Who are Herbivores? . . . . Herbivores are animals that eat only plants/producers. A community is all the populations of all the different species that are found in the same habitat. A population is a group of the same species that are found in the same habitat. Science The goal of science is to investigate and understand the natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions. Hypothesis A hypothesis is an "educated guess" that is testable through observations and experimentation.

What is an example of a hypothesis?

Raising the temperature of a cup of water will increase the amount of sugar that dissolves in it. Qualitative Qualitative data are descriptions that involve characteristics that cannot be measured. S H O E - Q ummary Is a brief statement explaining what the experiment is about. ypothesis A prediction or an educated guess bservations xplanations uestions The process of gathering information/observations in your experiment. Observe both quantitative and qualitative data. Tertiary consumers is the fourth trophic level. Tertiary consumers are carnivores and/or omnivores. Quantitative Quantitative data can be the length, weight, height, viscosity, density area, volume, speed, temperature, and time. Quantitative data are numbers and are observed by counting or measuring. The study of living organisms how interact with each other Biosphere Biosphere is all the living things on the earth's surface. It includes all the plants, animals and bacteria. Animals Plants Bacteria Hydrosphere Hydrosphere is all the waters on the earth's surface. It includes all the seas, lakes, ponds and rivers. Food Pyramid A food pyramid is usually a pyramid shaped diagram that shows quantitative data. The pyramid can show the number of organisms available at each trophic level, the amount of energy available at each level or the biomass available at each trophic level. But the shape could also be inverted 130 trees 90 rabbits 40 frogs 10 hawks 130 herbivorous insects 150 carnivorous insects 200 trees 2 hawks The shape is usually a pyramid Tertiary consumers = 4th Trophic Level Secondary consumers = 3rd Trophic Level Primary consumers = 2nd Trophic Level Producers = 1st Trophic Level Tertiary consumers = 4th Trophic Level Secondary consumers = 3rd Trophic Level Primary consumers = 1st Trophic Level Producers = 1st Trophic Level Sustainability The ability to meet the needs of this generation without compromising the ability to meet the needs of the future generation. Energy Transfer It is the transfer of energy from one trophic level to another. With each level there is a total loss in total energy transferred due to energy usage in each trophic level. Trophic Level Trophic level refers to how an organism gains its energy. Photosynthesis The process when the light energy from the sun is used to convert the carbon dioxide from the plants to carbohydrates. The consumers get their energy from the plants through the form of carbohydrates. Biome A biome is a major community of organisms that adapted to a particular climate or ecological condition on a large area. Bio-Accumulation The increase in concentration such as a toxic chemical or pesticide or pollutant in an organism. Bio-Magnification The increase in concentration such as toxic chemical or pesticides or pollutant that travels from one link in the food chain to another. The organism at the top of the food chain suffer more from the pesticide or toxic chemical or pollutant than organisms lower on the food chain. Detritivores It breaks down the dead plant or animal and it returns the nutrients back to the environment. Decompose When a dead body becomes rotten, it decomposes. For example, the dead skunk was decomposing. Respiration Respiration is the process of breathing. The bear lets out carbon dioxide. The plant then takes in that carbon dioxide and lets out oxygen. The bear then takes in that oxygen. Energy The capacity or power to do work Species Species can be defined as a group of individual organisms. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates is a main source of energy for most consumers. For example, simple carbohydrates digest (break down) quickly. Simple carbohydrates are candy, sugar drinks and sugar cereals. Complex carbohydrates digest (break down) slowly. Complex carbohydrates are fruits, vegetables and grains. Organism An individual plant, animal, bacteria, protists or fungus. Explain your results and observations. Joule It is a unit used to measure energy or work. Joule is named after James Prescott Joule. Lake Pond Sea River Rocks Water Soil Air 5 deer = population of deer population of deer + population of tree + population of bird = community All the living and nonliving things that interact with each other and with their environment. Carbon Dioxide Qualitative data can be the colour, appearance, smell, taste, texture or what you hear. Smell Taste Fabric Texture Paper Texture Red colour Hear Astronomy Our Solar System Mercury is the planet closest to the Sun. The mean surface temperature is from -180 to 426 Celsius. The average diameter is 4880km. The average distance from Sun to Mercury is 57.9 million km. Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Venus is the planet known as the evening star. The mean surface temperature is 470 Celsius. The average diameter is 12 100km. The average distance from Sun to Venus is 108 million km. The main substances in the atmosphere are carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Earth is made up of 70% of water. The mean surface temperature is from -85 to 58 Celsius. The average diameter is 12 750km. The average distance from Sun to Earth is 150 million km. The main substances in the atmosphere are nitrogen and oxygen. Mars is known as the red planet. The mean surface temperature is from -120 to 30 Celsius. The average diameter is 6790km. The average distance from Sun to Mars is 228 million km. The main substances in the atmosphere are carbon dioxide and nitrogen, Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system. The mean surface temperature -160 Celsius. The average diameter is 142 800km. The average distance from Sun to Jupiter is 778 million km. The main substances in the atmosphere are hydrogen, helium and methane. Neptune is the planet named after the sea god. The mean surface temperature is -220 Celsius. The average diameter is 48 600km. The average distance from the Sun to Neptune is 4497 million km. The main substances are hydrogen, helium and methane. The mean surface temperature is -220 Celsius. The average diameter is 2300km. The average distance from the Sun to Pluto is 5900 million km. Eutrophication An increase in chemical nutrients - typically compounds that contain nitrogen and phosphorus - in ecosystem. When we put fertilizers on our lawn, we think about the word eutrophication. There is a formula for eutrophication.

Example: 10 - 10 - 10 Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Galaxy Milky Way ? ? Moon A rock that crashes into Earth's atmosphere. Efficiency The quality of being capable. For example you have experience in performance. A satellite is any object that orbits around another object. Satellites can be celestial like a moon orbiting a planet in the solar system or a planet orbiting the sun. Satellites can be man-made as well. These man-made satellites are launched into outer space from the earth to collect data, photos, as well as other information about Earth and many other things. n Chemistry Physical Properties Satellites Hardness Astronomical Unit of Measurement The distance between the earth and the sun is 1 AU or 149,600,000 km. A light year is measure of distance. Its the distance that light travels in one year. A Light Year Luminous Stars are called luminous because they make the light that illuminates space. Objects like planets and moons are called non luminous because they do not make their own light but only reflect the light of stars. Non luminous Saturn is. The mean surface temperature is -180 Celsius. The average diameter is 120 700km. The average distance from the Sun to Saturn is 1427 million km. The main substances are hydrogen, helium and methane. Uranus is. The mean surface temperature is -210 Celsius. The average diameter is 50 800km. The average distance from the Sun to Uranus is 2870 million km. The main substance are hydrogen, helium and methane. Clusters of Stars Spiral Galaxies Barred Spiral Galaxies Elliptical Galaxies Irregular Galaxies Galaxies one type of motion is caleed eARTH phy
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