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Adjective Clauses and Adverb Clauses

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Whitney Currier

on 20 April 2018

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Transcript of Adjective Clauses and Adverb Clauses

Adjective Clauses and Adverb Clauses
Adjective clauses
Adverb clauses
There is the mountain
that we are going to climb.

My blue heels
, which used to belong to my mom,
were under the bed.

Lilian
, who was late again today,
was wearing a pink shirt.
An adjective clause (also called a "relative clause") is a
dependent clause
that
modifies a noun or pronoun
. It tells which one or what kind. Adjective clauses almost always come right after the nouns they modify.



There is
the mountain

that we are going to climb.


Daniel
,
who was late again today
, sits next to me in English.
Dependent clauses allow us to combine sentences:

Lilian was late again today
+

Lilian was wearing a pink shirt
=
Lilian
, who was late again today,
was wearing a pink shirt
An adjective clause is a type of
dependent clause.


(It contains a subject and a verb or verb phrase but does not express a complete thought).
An adjective clause is a dependent clause that, like an adjective,
modifies a noun or pronoun
.

Examples:
Mr. Jackson is
the teacher

who

helped me with my math problems.

Mr. Jones is

the teacher

who

has a mustache.
A
non-identifying (or "nonrestrictive"/"non-essential")
adjective clause provides
ADDITIONAL (and not critical)
information about the word it modifies, but the word’s meaning is already clear. Nonessential clauses are always framed by
COMMAS
.

Example:
The cat
, which has a weird meow,
is 17 years old.
The cat is 17
, which is old
.



which
relative pronouns we can use with non-restrictive clauses
who
90uyte89AS Dw56789023456789009wasxc///
rwertmmnmmnm/X
who/that =
people
that/which =
things


Women
who/that
exercise often are less stressed.

Heels
that/which
are very high are uncomfortable.
Which is less formal:
that
or
which
?
THAT
Mr. Currier,
whom

I mentioned yesterday, is my boss.
Mr. Currier,
who
I mentioned yesterday, is my boss.

Both are OK. "Whom" is more formal.
Relative pronouns can be
SUBJECTS
...
"I have a friend
who
loves to talk."

"I have a friend.
She
loves to talk."


....or
OBJECTS
"This is the test
that
he gave us."

This is the test. He gave
it

to us.
OBJECT PRONOUNS
can be
omitted
.

"This is the test
that/which
he gave us." (This is the test. He gave
it
to us.")
"This is the test he gave us."

"He saw the doctor
that
I recommended. ("This is the doctor. I recommended
him
.")
"He saw the doctor I recommended."

This is more informal (in essays try not to omit the relative pronoun).
Whose
Shatoo,
whose
hair is really long,
sits in the front row.
"whose" indicates POSSESSION
Shatoo sits in the front row.
Her
hair is long.

His / her / my / your / their / its = possession
Whose
Shatoo sits in the front row.
Her
hair is long.


Shatoo
,
whose
hair is really long,
sits in the front row.

His / her / my / your / their / its = possession
Combine these sentences:
1. He's the guy. His parents are famous.
2. Daniel is the guy. His clothes are brightly-colored.
3. That's the teacher. Her students are really advanced.
4. She has a boyfriend. His name is Larry.
5. Bo is the student. His shoes are cool.
6. That's the dog. His tail is always wagging.
7. You're thinking of China. Its population is bigger than India's.
"Where" replaces the word "there."

"That's the restaurant. We ate there."
"That's the restaurant
where we ate
."

"It's the place. I saw you there last week."
It's the place
where I saw you last week
.
Identifying adjective clause

vs.

Non-identifying adjective clause
An
identifying (or "essential"/"restrictive")

adjective clause provides information that is
NECESSARY
for identifying the word it modifies.

Example:
The cat
that has green eyes
likes to bite.


The cat
that has brown eyes
is nice.


that
which = relative pronouns we can use with restrictive clauses.
who
You can
OMIT
objective relative pronouns in IDENTIFYING clauses only.

I found the key. I lost
it
on Saturday.
= I found the key
that I lost
on Saturday.
=
I found the key
I lost
on Saturday. ------YES


I found the key under the table.
It
is pink.
= I found the key
, which is pink,
under the table.
= I found the key
, is pink,
under the table. -----NO
Which is correct?

She only slept 4 hours
, which
is why she is so tired.
She only slept 4 hours
, that
is why she is so tired.
She only slept 4 hours
, which
is why she is so tired.

which
and
who
can go after commas
Practice :)
I met him
after he got off work.
Since it's cold
, I'm wearing a jacket.

"Although I wasn't hungry
, I ate a lot."
I ate a lot,
although I wasn't hungry.


Adverb clauses tell us how, when, why, where, and under what conditions things happen. They also show contrast.
Adverb clauses are
dependent
clauses.

I met him
after he got off work.
They begin with a
subordinating conjunction
It began to rain
when
we got home.
Even if
it's expensive,

I don't care.
I don't know
whether
he's going or not.
Adverb Clauses of Time
...indicate WHEN something happens.
Introduced by

after, before, as soon as, once, since
,
etc.
Class will start
as soon as
everyone is here.
Call me
once
you get home.
You can't start Chapter 3
until
you finish Chapter 2.
Adverb Clauses of Place
...indicate WHERE something happens.
Introduced by
where, anywhere, everywhere, wherever,
etc.
I will find you
wherever
you go
!
Anywhere
there is a puppy
, I am happy.
Adverb Clauses of Reason
...indicate WHY something happens.
Introduced by
as, because, now that, since,
etc.
Class will start

because
it's 7:00
.
Since
it's raining
, the game was cancelled.
Now that
everyone is here
, we can begin.
Adverbs of Time
...indicate WHEN something happens.
Introduced by

after, before, as soon as, once, since
,
etc.
Class will start
as soon as
everyone is here
.
Call me
once
you get home
.
You can't start Chapter 3
until
you finish Chapter 2
.
Adverb Clauses of Condition
...indicate UNDER WHAT CONDITIONS something happens.
Introduced by

if, even if, only if, unless, in case
,
etc.
Even if
you're going to be late
, come to class.
Call me
if
you need help.
Unless
you pay attention in class
, you won't get a high grade.
Adverb Clauses of Contrast
...make a contrast with the idea in the independent clause
Introduced by

although, even though, though, while, whereas
,
etc.
Although
I'm not angry
, I still don't want to talk to you.
While
he's poor
, he's happy.
While
he's heavy
, he's healthy.
Practice:

Page 329 of book, Exercise 1
Who vs. whom


Example 1: Shakila is a girl.
She
has a cool backpack.
Shakila is a girl
who
has a cool backpack.


Example 2: Shakila is the girl. I met
her
yesterday.
Shakila is the girl
whom
I met yesterday.


To Whom It May Concern
Relative Pronouns
An adjective clause generally begins with a
relative pronoun
(that, which, who, whom, whose)

that connects the clause to the
noun or pronoun
it modifies.

The
relative pronoun
shows the relationship between the clause and the
noun/pronoun.
Example: I like the
dog

that
has white paws.
CORRECT:
She only slept 4 hours
, which
is why she is so tired.
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