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John Q. Adams / 6th President

U.S. History 1 Honors Summer Assignment (Freshmen Year)

Kathera Alba

on 19 August 2013

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Transcript of John Q. Adams / 6th President

6th United States President
John Quincy Adams
by Kathera Alba
July 11, 1767 - Febuary 23, 1848
"Old Man Eloquent"
As a child, he watched the battle of Bunker Hill on the top of his family farm. At the age of 10 his father was sent on an envoy to Europe, John Quincy went with him. Thus introducing him to the courts of Europe and Democracy. For seven and half years, he traveled and lived all over Europe. He stayed in London, Amsterdam, Paris and St. Petersburg. Resulting in him learning to speak French as well as Dutch, also becoming familiar German.
John Quincy worked as a lawyer in Boston from 1790-1794 although his father was vice president this did not have much of an affect on his job, he didn't have much success. Having few clients and time he wrote articles that supported the current Washington administration.
President George Washington knowing of Adams capability to speak Dutch appointed him as Minister to the Netherlands in 1794. Though he was only
26-years-old at the time handled his position well: managing to get the Dutch to repay their loans to the United States. Once Adams father became president Washington urged him to appoint Adams as Minister to Prussia. He remained Minister for the remainder of his fathers Presidency.
After returning, he was elected to the Massachusetts State Senate. Later in 1803 he was elected by Federalist to the United States Senate. As senator he supported Thomas Jefferson's Embargo Act and the Louisiana Purchase. Being the only Federalist in both houses to support the Louisiana Purchase made him unpopular.
He grew up during the American Revolution, lived and traveled throughout Europe. John Quincy was tutored by his parents. He went to schools in Paris and Amsterdam. After his seven and a half years of traveling around Europe he studied for a year in Leiden University his schooling there was interrupted. Once returning to America in 1785 he entered Harvard University to complete his education, graduated after two years. Later was admitted to the bar and began to practice law.
In 1807 the Massachusetts legislature called a special session - they wanted to remove Adams one year before the end of his term. He resigned then leading him to change sides becoming a Democratic-Republican. Undeterred by his life in Senate he became satisfied as a professor at Harvard University; teaching there from 1805-1809.
New President James Madison appointed Adams as the United States Minister to Russia in 1809 (first to ever hold this position). Five years later, in 1814 he was called back as the chief negotiator for the Treaty of Ghent. Which eventually ended the war of 1812. He became the secretary of State under president James Madison.
Instrumental in
acquisition of Florida
(then a territory of Spain)
Also negotiated
Adams-Onis Treaty also known as the Transcontinental Treaty or the Purchase of Florida - a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819, gave Florida to the United States and set boundary between the United states and New Spain (now Mexico).
Monroe Doctrine - informed European countries not to try to interfere or colonize the Americas.
In the election of 1824 Adams had three major opponents - Andrew Jackson, William Crawford, and Henry Clay. Nobody won the majority of votes - sending the election to the House of Representatives. Clay got the least amount of votes becoming ineligible for presidency then began supporting Adams who later was elected and appointed Clay Secretary of State. Leading opponents to claim a "corrupt bargain"
He was very independent and did no give much attention to gaining political allies. He put forth no effort to dismiss those who went to join the opposition believing that people in office should be based on what one is capable of and not political views. This and his distant personality made him unpopular.
Adams supported the "American System" which was proposed by Henry Clay. Proposing a national market where both the North and South would participate in the trade. Also wanted progress, proposing the construction of educational institutions, the building of roads, and canals. Because Adams lacked support many of his proposals would not pass.
In 1828 the supposed "Tariff of Abominations" was passed - its goal, to protect domestic manufacturing. It was opposed in the South leading Vice President John C. Calhoun to once again argue for the right of nullification.
As result of Adams unpopularity, in the the election of 1828 Andrew Jackson became the 7th president of the United States. Adams became the second president to serve only one term.
After presidency Adams was asked to run for Congress. He would agree to do so as long as - he would always follow his conscience and that he'd never solicit their votes. Once elected he served 9 continuous terms. Becoming more popular as a Representative then President.
During his career in Congress, being a anti-slavery advocate he fought the "Gag-Rule" which states that
anti-slavery petitions should not be heard. In 1844 the House finally came to repeal the "Gag-Rule". Adams came to be known as "Old Man Eloquent" seeing as he was one of the greatest speakers in the House.
On February 21, 1848, John Quincy collapsed suffering a massive stroke in the House. Resulting in his death two days later (at the age of 80.) - Fighting till death to what the thought was right. - Once dead the nation mourned who was one of the most intelligent men to ever enter the White House. He now lays beside his parents and wife (who died of a heart attack at the age of 77) at the First Parish Church in Quincy, Massachusetts.
Adams is the first President who married a foreign-born wife - Louisa Catherine Johnson. They met as children in France (she at the time was only 4-years-old.) Eighteen years later they met again (her being 22 then.) Adams father first objected to their relationship because he saw the future of his son as being a President and thought that it might not be a wise choice. Still on July 26, 1797 they married, together they had 4 children - 3 sons and 1 daughter.
George Washington Adams (April 12, 1801 - April 30, 1829)
John Adams II (July 4, 1803 - October 23, 1834)
Both George Adams and their second son John Adams, had troubled lives and died in early adulthood. - George committed suicide and John was expelled from Harvard before his 1823 graduation.
Unnamed son - died shortly after birth, 1806
Charles Francis Adams, Sr. (August 18, 1807 - November 21, 1886) - pursued a career in diplomacy and politics. In 1870 he built the first memorial Presidential library in the United States, to honor his father.
Louisa Adams (1811 - 1812) died before the age of 1 in Russia.
John Quincy Adams was born on July 11, 1767 in what is now known as Quincy, Massachusetts to the second President of the United States - John Adams and his wife Abigail Adams. He was the eldest of their 6 children. (Abigail Smith, Susanna, Charles, Thomas, and Elizabeth Adams). Susanna Adams (born December 28, 1768) died before the age of 2. Elizabeth Adams (born in 1777) was stillborn (meaning dead at birth). The remaining children lived to adulthood.
Works Cited

"How Many Children Did Abigail Adams Have?" Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Aug. 2012. <
"John Quincy Adams - 6th President of the United States." About.com American History. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 July 2012. <
"John Quincy Adams Biography â 6th U.S. President Timeline & Early Life." John Quincy Adams Biography â 6th U.S. President Timeline & Early Life. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 July 2012. <
"John Quincy Adams." The White House. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 July 2012. <
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