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Assessments in Early Childhood

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by

Courtney Cruz

on 28 September 2014

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Transcript of Assessments in Early Childhood

Assessing Children on the Autism Spectrum
• Number of children with autism and autism spectrum disorder has been increasing in recent years
• 1 in every 110 children has an autism spectrum disorder
• Pervasive development disorders
• Assessment involves observations and data collection from a variety of sources and environments
• Methods should include: rating scales, interviews, observations in a natural environment, and age-appropriate assessment

Assessments in Early Childhood
by Courtney Cruz, Alyssa Lanzo & Kaitlin Rutushin

Techniques & Considerations
• Formal methods of assessments
• Alternative methods of
assessment be used in conjunction
or in place of traditional
assessment of infants and young
children
-play evaluations
-arena assessment
-interactive strategies
-observations
-situational questionnaires
-ecobehavioral interviews

Strengths & Weaknesses
Common Misunderstandings
Assessing Infants
Concerns to indicate infant assessment:
Regulatory disturbances
Social/environmental disturbances
Psychophysiological disturbances
Developmental delays
Assessing Toddlers & Young Children
"Most commonly used instruments specifically designed to assess the general development and behavior of young children."
What's the Purpose?
Eligibility
Evaluation
Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP)

Why is assessment useful?
Phonemic Awareness
Broken into 2 subskills:
Synthesis

Analysis
The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence 3rd edition
Receptive vocabulary
Information
Block Design
Object Assembly
Supplemental Subtest
Vocabulary
Word Reasoning
Matrix Reasoning
Picture Concepts
Coding
Comprehension
Picture Completion
Similarities
Early Screening Profile
Cognitive Language Profile
Motor Profile
Self-help/social Profile
Articulation Survey
Home Survey and Home Health Survey
Behavior Survey
DIAL 3
Motor
Concepts
Language
Parent Questionnaire
Mullen Scales
Brigance Screens
Assess visual/fine and graphmotor, gross motor, quantitative concepts, personal information, receptive vocabulary, reading skills, expressive vocab, articulation/verbal fluency/syntax
Kaufman Survey of Early Academic and Language Skills
(KSeals)
Vocabulary
Numbers and letters
Words
Child's vision
Fine and gross motor skills
Receptive & expressive language


Guidelines
4 Components:
1. Child's present levels of
development
2. Family's resources, priorities
& concerns
3. Expected outcomes: criteria,
procedures, and timelines
4. Specific early intervention
services
"ongoing procedures used by qualified personnel to determine the child's eligibility for special services and continued eligibility under this law" -1997 IDEA amendment
IDEA
Funding
Servicing

Developmental delays
At-risk for developmental
delays
Same disabilities as
school-aged children
Prenatal/ perinatal variables
Parent, family, environmental variables
Primary caregiver/infant relationship
Infant variables

Infant Assessment Factors:

• First-step screening assessment
• Ages 3-22 can be screened
• Approximately 10 minutes to complete
• Communication, social interactions, and
stereotyped behaviors
• Children who appear to have deficiencies in
one or more of the three areas assessed should
be referred for additional screening

Gilliam Autism Rating Scale
PDD
Behavior Inventory
(PDD-BI)

Rating forms to be completed by the teacher and a parent
• Can use at 18 months
• Several subscales measure both positive and negative
symptoms
• Approach/Withdrawal Problems
and Receptive/Expressive Social Communications Abilities
• Other subscales: positive affect behaviors, gestural
approach behaviors, social play behaviors, imaginative
play, receptive language competence, and associative
learning skills
• 11 Domains
• Variables: parental education, ethnicity, diagnosis of the
child, and how the diagnosis was confirmed

Childhood Autism Rating Scales,
2nd Edition (CARS-2)
• 3 versions
-Standard Version (use with
children 6 years and younger)
-High-Functioning Version Rating
Booklet
-Parent/Caregiver Questionnaire
• Each of the rating forms contains
15 items
• Items provide indicators such as
adaptions to change, relating to
people, and imitation
• Rated for severity and duration

Autism Observation Schedule (ADOS)
• “Gold standard” in assessment
• Method for direct assessment
• The appropriate level for administration is determined by
the child’s level of language development
• Complex scoring
• Should be recorded on video so that the behaviors in
questions can be reviewed during the scoring process
• The current ADOS includes items from the earlier versions
and additional items developed to assess order and more
verbal individuals
• ADOS developed primarily by using results of samples of
children who were referred for evaluations for potential
developmental disorders

Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R)
• Extensive clinical interview
• School setting-school psychologist
• About 2 1/2 hours
• Can determine if referred child
has an autistic spectrum
disorder and what additional
data may need to be collected
• Questions about early behaviors
• Helpful in determining the
specific disorder that may exist
• Use a variety of methods to
determine if the child has more
than one area of concern


PL 99-457
• Issues raised by Goodman and Hover
-confusion with the interpretation and
implementation of the family
assessment component
-regulations may be misunderstood
• The family’s strengths and needs are the objects of assessment
• Relationship between parents and paraprofessionals should be viewed as reciprocal
• Negotiation between parents and paraprofessionals and become team members


Issues and Questions
Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale
reflex and behavioral observation items
used to determine control states
sleeping
alertness
used up to 1 month of age
Uzgiris-Hunt Ordinal Scales of Psychological Development
used within the first 2 years of life
6 scales
visual pursuit
object permanence
manipulation of environment
interaction with environment
development of vocal and gesural imitation
development of schemes for relating to the environment
Bayley Scales of Infant Development II
ages 1-42 months
requires the examiner to manipulate objects and observe reactions and behavior
assesses: mental functions (memory, problem solving, verbal ability) and motor functions (coordination and control
behavioral rating scale
Full transcript