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HOW TO CHECK VITAL SIGNS

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by

Jessica Bergner

on 2 November 2016

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Transcript of HOW TO CHECK VITAL SIGNS

VITAL SIGNS & MEASUREMENTS
RESPIRATION
*Throbbing of arteries caused by the heart contracting (systolic) and relaxing (diastolic).

NORMAL:
*Adults: 60-100 beats per minute
*Children over 7yo: 70-100
*Children 1-7yo: 80-110
*Infants: 100-160
TEMPERATURE
BLOOD PRESSURE
FACTORS INFLUENCING VITAL SIGNS:
INCREASE:


DECREASE:

*Exercise *Sleep
*Anxiety / Excitement *Depression
*Illness / Infection *Medication
*Enviro temp *Fasting
*Force of blood against arterial wall while heart beats.
ILLNESSES:
*VASCULAR DISORDERS:
-Diseases of blood vessels
(arteries, capillaries, veins)

*CARDIAC DISORDERS:
-Diseases of the heart.

ANGINA PECTORIS
: Chest pain (from heart disease).

ARRHYTHMIA
: Irregular heart beat rhythm.
FOUR VITAL SIGNS:
1) Temperature
2) Pulse
3) Respiration
4) Blood
Pressure
*Measure & record accurately!
-First indication of abnormalities/diseases
*Degree of Pain

*Level of
Consciousness

*Size of Pupils

*Reaction of
Pupils to light
*Color of Skin

*Reaction to Stimuli
OTHER HEALTH INDICATORS:
BODY MEASUREMENTS:
*Height, Weight, & Head Circumference (Infants)
*ADULTS- growth charts for healthy wt.
*CHILDREN- growth charts compare others
BODY MEASUREMENTS
CONTINUED...
Needed for:
*Laboratory tests
*Calculating Rx dosage
WEIGHT CONSCIOUSNESS:
*Be sensitive & respectful
*Positive comments!
*Be private when
discussing weight
HEIGHT & WEIGHT ABNORMALITIES:
*Signal diseases
INFANTS-
*Growth/Development
*Nutritional deficiencies
*Genetic diseases
SCALES:
*Balance Beam with Height Bar
*Bed
*Wheelchair
*Infant scale with height marks
*NORMAL: 98.6* F or 37* C
*Measures body heat...balance of heat lost & produced.
LOST ( ): Perspiration, slow metabolism
PRODUCED ( ): Metabolism, muscle activity
ABNORMAL TEMPERATURES:
*
HYPOTHERMIA
-Below 95 degrees F
*
FEVER
-Above 101 degrees F
*
HYPERTHERMIA
-Above 104 degrees F
3.) VOLUME
: Character/Strength of beats
0= Absent 2= Strong
1=Thready 3= Bounding
ASSESSING PULSE:
2.) RHYTHM
: Pattern of beats
*IRREGULAR- Unequal spacing (Arrhythmia)
1.) RATE
: Number beats per min.
*Too High/Fast = Tachycardia
*Too Low/Slow = Bradycardia
*Cycle of ONE inhale (oxygen) and ONE exhale (carbon dioxide).

-Check
RATE, CHARACTER, & RHYTHM
after pulse.

-Patient should NOT know you're checking.
*
NORMAL RATE
- Adults: 14 - 18 cycles per min,
-Children: 16 - 27
-Infants: 30 - 50
*
CHARACTER
- Normal, Shallow, Deep
-Normal is effortless, quiet
*
RHYTHM
- Regular / Irregular
-Equal spacing of breaths
ABNORMAL RESPIRATION:
*
DYSPNEA
- Difficult breathing
*
APNEA
- Temporary absence
*
TACHYPNEA
- Over 25 breaths / min
*
BRADYPNEA
- Under 10 breaths / min
*
ORTHOPNEA
- Breathing possible only
when sitting or standing
*
CYANOSIS
- Skin, nails, lips turn blue
*SYSTOLIC
(top#):
-Heart/Left ventricle CONTRACTS, pushing blood into arteries
Healthy BP = 120
80
*DIASTOLIC
(bottom#):
-Heart RELAXES
*
Normal Systolic
:
100-140
*
Normal Diastolic
:
60-90
*
Hypertension
(>140/90)
*
Hypotension
:
(<100/60)
120
80
-
ORAL
: Mouth (most common)

-
RECTAL
(most accurate) *Under 6yrs; Difficulty breathing; Given oxygen; Facial paralysis

-
TYMPANIC
/AURAL: Ear (most comfortable)

-
AXILLARY
: Armpit (least accurate)
SITES:
1.) Temporal (head)
2.) Carotid (neck)
3.) Apical (heart)
4.) Brachial (inner arm)
5.) Radial (thumb side wrist)
6.) Femoral (inner thigh)
7.) Popliteal (behind knee)
8.) Dorsalis Pedis (top foot)
9.) Posterior Tibial (side heal)
*
MAJOR PULSE POINT ARTERIES:
*2or3 fingers
*Count beats for 6 secs *Multiply by 10
Full transcript