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Copy of Causes of the Enlightenment

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Janeen Saunders

on 3 March 2016

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Transcript of Copy of Causes of the Enlightenment

Causes of the Enlightenment
What is the
Enlightenment?
The period in which people used reason to revolutionize science, philosophy, politics, and other ideas. The Enlightenment is often called the Age of Reason.
The Enlightenment begins!
Greek and Roman Philosophy
The Reformation
Protestant reformers questioned the authority of the church because some church teachings did not agree with scientific observations of the world.
Result: People began to believe in the use of reason to study the world instead of blindly accepting religious teachings.
Christianity
Thomas Aquinas (Middle Ages, theologian): faith + reason can explain the world
Enlightenment was generally a secular (non-religious) movement.
Enlightenment thinkers did not agree with the authority of the church, and the way the church did not accept non-Christian ideas.
Result: People began to question church teachings and authority, causing the church to lose power in politics. This allowed more scientific ideas to be expressed and different ideas and beliefs to be accepted.
The Renaissance
People during the Renaissance (humanists) used Greek and Roman philosophy to question faith.
Most humanists were religious, but their ideas centered on human worth and accomplishments, instead of God.
They believed that by studying the world, they could improve it.
Result:
The Enlightenment idea of progress--humans can improve the world instead of waiting for religious miracles.
Other Philosophers
Annotated Bibliography
Burstein, Stanley M. Shek, Richard. World History: Medieval to Early Modern Times. Holt. Austin: 2006. Print.

This book is a part of the Holt California Social Studies history series for students. It goes in depth about the Enlightenment and outlines its main causes. Compared to "The Rise of Enlightened Reason" by Richard Jewell, it focused more on the general idea instead of specific aspects. This source contributed greatly to our research on what the main causes of the Enlightenment were.


Causes of the Enlightenment
Causes of the Enlightenment include:
Greek and Roman philosophy
Christianity
The Renaissance
The Reformation
The Scientific Revolution
Other philosophers
The Scientific Revolution
Greek philosophers came up with scientific thinking (the method of logical reasoning to observe the world).
Roman philosophers created the idea of natural law (how the world works).
Result: People during the Enlightenment began to use these methods to study the world differently and apply them to society and government.
Thank you for listening to our presentation!
Scientists discovered that the world did not always work according to the teachings of the church.
The scientific method allowed scientists to discover laws that ruled the natural world.
Scientific thinking led to the use of logic and reason to solve problems in society.
Results:
The Enlightenment belief that natural laws also dictate society and government of the human world.
People began to use reason instead of religion and ancient ideas to improve society and the government.
Rene Descartes (father of modern philosophy): "I think, therefore I am."
Reason is more important than religion.
Knowledge begins with doubt, not faith.
Voltaire:
Humans can improve society, not just God.
People can think for themselves and express their ideas, even if they contradict the church.
Result: People began to believe in reason even if it contradicted with religion or the church.
Annotated Bibliography
Jewell, Richard. "The Rise of Enlightened Reason". University of Minnesota. 2002. University of Minnesota. May 26, 2015.
<http://www.tc.umn.edu/~jewel001/humanities/book/7reason.htm>

This book is a part of a web textbook series called "Experiencing the Humanities", by Richard Jewell. It includes information about how the scientific revolution and philosophers contributed to the Enlightenment and the use of reason, as well as notable figures who questioned the use of reason. Compared to "Enlightenment", it focused more certain causes of the Enlightenment rather than the Enlightenment itself. This source contributed greatly to our research on how the Scientific Revolution and philosophers such as Rene Descartes contributed to the rise of reason and the Enlightenment.


Bristow, William. "Enlightenment". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2010. Stanford University. May 26, 2015.
<http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/enlightenment/>

This book is a part of an online encyclopedia by Stanford University. It goes in depth about the Enlightenment and its main events and ideas. Compared to "World History: Medieval to Early Modern Times", it focused more on the Enlightenment rather than its causes. This source contributed moderately to our research on what the Enlightenment was and some of the major Enlightenment ideas.


Annotated Bibliography
The Enlightenment
https://blogs.longwood.edu/historyofrhetoric/2015/03/13/post-12-renaissance-vs-enlightenment/
Greek and Roman Philosophy
http://philosophy.uchicago.edu/workshops/
Thomas Aquinas
https://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/coretexts/book-shelf/world-religions.php
Rene Descartes
http://sites.psu.edu/akennedyscollegeciviclife/2015/01/30/a-whirlwind-timeline-of-mostly-western-philosophy/
The Scientific Revolution: The Scientific Method
Voltaire
http://republicofletters.stanford.edu/casestudies/voltaire.html
The Renaissance
http://www.cs.wayne.edu/webtech/Destiny/renaissance.html
The Reformation: Martin Luther & The 95 Theses
http://staff.jccc.edu/jjackson/reformation.htm
http://home.ubalt.edu/ntsbarsh/opre640/opre640.htm
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