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Week 14: Kielmann

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Mika Kadono

on 3 November 2016

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Transcript of Week 14: Kielmann

Week 13
Ethnographies of Infectious Disease

What's culture got to do with it?
“Our background has made us think we should be Christians and see the women [prostitutes] as immoral.
What's history got to do with it?
What's culture got to do with it?
National identity
Primary - tribe, ethnic group
Secondary - nation
What's politics got to do with it?
But there was no prostitution before;
we had polygamy.”
(Kielmann 1997, 375)
Kikuyu = Kenyan
What's culture got to do with it?
Early 1990s
Widespread tribal clashes
Thousands killed
Tens of thousands displaced/homeless
What's gender got to do with it?
Indians in Kenya
Men are responsible for caring for the animals
Gendered Division of Labor
Relative Status of Men + Women
Men control $$$
Domestic violence is common
Female Genital Modification (FGM)
Polygamy, traditionally
5-6 wives
Domestic Unit
Traditionally, separate hut for each wife and for himself
Older sons have a house close by
Youngest son cares for parents
Traditionally, from father to son

Cultural and legal obstacles for women to inherit property, still today
What changed?
How does Kielmann explain the paradigms of AIDS prevention and women’s identities in Thika, Kenya?
How did the medicalization of the AIDS discourse change?
What is the problem with the label "prostitute"?
The Kielmann article was based on data collected in 1991.
What has changed in the African AIDS discourse since then?
What were the incorrect assumptions upon which the HIV programs for women were based?
Why were they wrong?
How did anthropology help change the misunderstandings?
What's wrong with these assumptions?
1. "Prostitutes" constituted a homogeneous group
What can we learn from ‘local meanings’ and how can we integrate them into prevention programs?
What happens when local meaning is ignored?
Farmer's "stupid deaths" continue regardless of medical knowledge of control and eradication.
How can you use anthropology to change that?
Chapter 13 - Karina Kielmann
"Prostitution," "Risk" and "Responsibility":
Paradigms of AIDS Prevention and Women's Identities in Thika, Kenya
Dr. Linda Whiteford
The Anthropology of Infectious Disease
Inhorn & Brown (1997)
Thika, Kenya
Ethnic relations
Kikuyu = largest tribe in the highlands
Consolidated their power
Post-independence power
Also, hardest hit by brutal British policies
Late 1990s
Pokots vs. Marakwets
Turkanas vs. Samburus
Maasai vs. Kisii
Ethnic Tensions
Both men and women work in the fields
HOWEVER, women perform ~80% of the work
Opposed by Christian missionaries
Not as common today
Not as practical ($$$)
2. These women were at risk because of their sexual behavior
3. Giving the women information would change behavior
Not all women are alike, even those who share a profession
Understanding local meaning is critical to mediating between bio-medical and local knowledge.
“Folk” EP a is central contribution of anthropology to public health
Men leave rural communities to work in the cities
Increases the work load for rural women
Women more likely to work outside of household
Women = 40% of urban workforce
City of Kisumu
Elected woman mayor
Several women in parliament
Women = Second-class citizens
National Women's Council of Kenya
TED: Elizabeth Pisani
Sex, Drugs and HIV - Let's Get Rational
Full transcript