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Poetry: Terminology and Structure (AP Lit)

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justin weber

on 21 October 2015

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Transcript of Poetry: Terminology and Structure (AP Lit)

Had we but world enough, and time,
This coyness, lady, were no crime.
We would sit down and think which way
To walk, and pass our long love's day;
Thou by the Indian Ganges' side
Shouldst rubies find; I by the tide
Of Humber would complain. I would
Love you ten years before the Flood;
And you should, if you please, refuse
Till the conversion of the Jews.
My vegetable love should grow
Vaster than empires, and more slow.
An hundred years should go to praise
Thine eyes, and on thy forehead gaze;
Two hundred to adore each breast,
But thirty thousand to the rest;
An age at least to every part,
And the last age should show your heart.
For, lady, you deserve this state,
Nor would I love at lower rate.

Those hours that with gentle work did frame
The lovely gaze where every eye doth dwell
Will play the tyrants to the very same,
And that unfair which fairly doth excel:
For never-resting time leads summer on
To hideous winter and confounds him there,
Sap checked with frost and lusty leaves quite gone,
Beauty o'er-snowed and bareness every where:
Then were not summer's distillation left
A liquid prisoner pent in walls of glass,
Beauty's effect with beauty were bereft,
Nor it nor no remembrance what it was.
But flowers distilled though they with winter meet,
Leese but their show, their substance still lives sweet.
marking poems in order to determine meter

from Longfellow’s “Hiawatha”
From the waterfall he named her,
Minnehaha, Laughing Water
(trochaic tetrameter)
a series of stressed and unstressed syllables

—unstressed, stressed
(U /)

—stressed, unstressed
(/ U)

—unstressed, unstressed, stressed
(U U /)
on the WAY

—stressed, unstressed, unstressed
(/ U U)
Blank Verse:
no rhyme but does have meter and most often written in iambic pentameter

Free Verse:
No rhyme or meter

based on number of syllables - 5, 7, 5 - and usually regards nature

an extended or elaborate metaphor that typically compares two unlike things throughout an entire poem.
lyric poem with more than one stanza, and having a formal rhyme and meter scheme

addressing someone or something that is not present

Example: O, stranger of the future
Example: Blue moon, you saw me standing alone
a short, humorous poem consisting of five anapestic lines. Lines 1, 2, and 5 have seven to ten syllables rhyme and have the same rhythm. The 3rd and 4th lines have five to seven syllables, rhyme, and have the same rhythm

An exceedingly fat friend of mine,
When asked at what hour he'd dine,
     Replied, "At eleven,     
At three, five, and seven,
And eight and a quarter past nine.
poem that idealizes country life
(Noble Shepherd)

poem of mourning for the dead

a poem that tells a story similar to a folk tale or legend which often has a repeated refrain

certain letters, usually the first for a word or message when read in sequence (Kindergarten)

extensive poem that tells a story about a heroic figure
a repeated set of lines. Similar to a chorus in musical composition.

Rhyme scheme
: pattern of rhyming within a poem and usually marked using lowercase letters—aa, bb, cc, dd

End rhyme
: rhyme that occurs at the end of a line

I went to the store (a)
To buy some milk (b)
But I found something more (a)
A scarf of silk. (b)

Internal rhyme
: rhyme that occurs within a line

I am the daughter of Earth and Water,
And the nursling of the Sky;
I pass through the pores of the ocean and shores;
I change, but I cannot die
a major subdivision in a poem (like a paragraph)

2 lines=couplet
3 lines=tercet
4 lines=quatrain
5 lines=quintain
6 lines=sestet
7 lines=septet
8 lines=octave
9 lines=Spenserian stanza
reference to a person, place, or thing: literary, mythological, or historical. Assumes reader understands the references.

a character or event that represents a certain type or scene

Terminology and Analysis

The whiskey on your breath
Could make a small boy dizzy;
But I hung on like death:
Such waltzing was not easy.
We romped until the pans
Slid from the kitchen shelf;
My mother's countenance
Could not unfrown itself.
A “foot” represents one metrical unit—a pattern
of Unstressed, Stressed, Unstressed, Stressed
represents 2 iambic units (U /, U /)

Monometer=One Foot
Dimeter=Two Feet
Trimeter=Three Feet
Tetrameter=Four Feet
Pentameter=Five Feet
Hexameter=Six Feet
Heptameter=Seven Feet
Octameter=Eight Feet
When forty winters shall besiege thy brow,
And dig deep trenches in thy beauty's field,
Thy youth's proud livery so gazed on now,
Will be a tattered weed of small worth held:
Then being asked, where all thy beauty lies,
Where all the treasure of thy lusty days;
To say within thine own deep sunken eyes,
Were an all-eating shame, and thriftless praise.
How much more praise deserved thy beauty's use,

If thou couldst answer 'This fair child of mine
Shall sum my count, and make my old excuse‘
Proving his beauty by succession thine.
This were to be new made when thou art old,
- volta
And see thy blood warm when thou feel'st it cold.
Example of Shakespearean Sonnet
14 line poem written in iambic pentameter with a rhyme scheme

- first 8 lines; sometimes

the problem
- last 6 lines; sometimes the solution
- known as "the turn" in Italian poetry and it is the line signifying the change between octave and sestet. Shakespearean sonnets typically have the turn in the last two lines.

consonant repetition

Example: Peter piper picked a peck of pickled…

vowel repetition

Example: Hear the mellow wedding bells
Example: Try to light the fire

Giving human qualities to something that is not human

Example: The trees waved their branches at us
Common Figurative Language
comparing two unlike things using like, as, or than

Example: Her hair was like a bird’s nest.

comparing two unlike things without using like, as, or than

Example: Her hair was a bird’s nest.
Common Figurative Language
Figurative language is writing or speaking that purposefully departs from the literal meanings of words to achieve a particularly vivid, expressive, and/or imaginative image.

It can be used to add color or intensity to a description. For example, metaphors, similes and personification.
Figurative Language
Poetic Elements
Poetic Elements
Aesthetics of Poetry
Elements of Poetry
Types of Poems
Types of Poems
Types of Poems
Types of Poems
Shakespearean sonnet: ababcdcdefefgg
Italian/Petrarchan sonnet: abbaabbacdcdcd
Spenserian sonnet: ababbcbccdcdee
Types of Poems
Sounds of Poetry
Sounds of Poetry
Structure of Meter
Shakespeare Sonnet #5
Iambic Tetrameter
from To His Coy Mistress by Andrew Marvell
Iambic Pentameter
Iambic Trimeter
from My Papa's Waltz by Theodore Roethke
Structure of Poetry
Structure of Poetry
Structure of Poetry
Structure of Poetry
subdivision in Epic/Narrative poem. Similar to a chapter in a book.
combining two unlike or opposite things to create a new meaning.
Example: "Living Death" or bittersweet
A story or visual image with a second distinct meaning partially hidden behind its literal or visible meaning. This technique relates to Personification, because abstract qualities are given human shape.
Examples: "Animal Farm," "Lord of the Flies," Statue of Liberty
Some Common Allusions
Daedalus & Icarus: reaching too far
Midas & Sybil: careful what you wish for
Odysseus: hero's journey
Oedipus: careful about comfort
Cain & Abel: jealousy
Daniel: power of faith and belief
David: even the small are powerful
Jesus: savior and unexpected leader
Archetypes & Their Goals
The Innocent:

to be happy
The Orphan/Regular Person
to belong
The Hero:

expert mastery in a way that improves the world
The Caregiver:

to help others
The Explorer:

to experience a better, more authentic, more fulfilling life
The Rebel:

to overturn what isn't working
The Lover:

being in a relationship with the people, work and surroundings they love
The Creator:

to realize a vision
The Jester/Trickster:
to have a great time and lighten up the world
The Sage:

to use intelligence and analysis to understand the world
The Magician
to make dreams come true
The Ruler:

create a prosperous, successful family or community

What is Poetry?
Dictionary Definition:
Poetry is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content.
Another Definition:
Poetry can be differentiated most of the time from prose, which is language meant to convey meaning in a more expansive and less condensed way, frequently using more complete logical or narrative structures than poetry does. This does not necessarily imply that poetry is illogical, but rather that poetry is often created from the need to escape the logical, as well as expressing feelings and other expressions in a tight, condensed manner. Compared with prose, poetry depends less on the linguistic units of sentences and paragraphs, and more on units of organization that are purely poetic. The typical structural elements are the line, couplet, strophe, stanza, and verse paragraph.
Approaching Poetry
Technical Analysis
—the methods (devices) used to achieve the effects revealed in the work
—what the work means
—your judgment of the effectiveness or significance of the poem or any part of it

Approaches to poetry that explains many students’ dislike:
Always looking for a lesson or moral resolution
Always expect to find poetry beautiful

AP Literature and Composition
Mr. Weber
Poetic Elements
: Similar to Allegory, but a symbol generally refers to an individual character, item, place, or idea. Author can use common symbols or readers can create their own interpretations.

a recurrent image, word, or phrase that unifies a literary work or forms a theme in a work of Literature

: from the Latin term for "concept" is an extended metaphor that goes throughout an entire poem. Typically creating a similarity that is not common or expected.

: Exaggerating, often in a humorous way, to make a particular point is known as hyperbole.

Example: My eyes widened at the sight of the mile-high ice cream cones we were having for dessert.
: a name for an action by imitating the sound associated with it, this is known as onomatopoeia.
Example: The bees
angrily when their hive is disturbed.
Common Object Symbols
Feathers – lightness, speed
Shadow – our dark side, evil, devil
Masks – concealment
Boats/Rafts – safe passage
Bridge – change, transformation
Right hand – rectitude, correctness
Left hand – deviousness
Feet – stability, freedom
Skeleton – mortality
Heart – love, emotions
Hourglass – the passage of time

Common Nature Symbols
Air – activity, creativity, breath, light, freedom (liberty), movement
Ascent – height, transcendence, inward journey, increasing intensity
Center – thought, unity, timelessness, spacelessness, paradise, creator, infinity,
Descent – unconscious, potentialities of being, animal nature
Duality – Yin-Yang, opposites, complements, positive-negative, male-female, life-death
Earth – passive, feminine, receptive, solid
Fire – the ability to transform, love, life, health, control, sun, God, passion, spiritual energy, regeneration
Lake – mystery, depth, unconscious
Crescent moon – change, transition
Mountain – height, mass, loftiness, center of the world, ambition, goals
Valley – depression, low-points, evil, unknown
Sun – Hero, son of Heaven, knowledge, the Divine eye, fire, life force, creative-guiding force, brightness, splendor,
active awakening, healing, resurrection, ultimate wholeness
Water – passive, feminine
Rivers/Streams – life force, life cycle
Stars – guidance
Wind – Holy Spirit, life, messenger
Ice/Snow – coldness, barrenness
Clouds/Mist – mystery, sacred
Rain – life giver
Steam – transformation to the Holy Spirit
Cave – feminine
Lightning – intuition, inspiration
Tree – where we learn, tree of life, tree of knowledge
Forest – evil, lost, fear

Common Color Symbols
Black (darkness) – chaos, mystery, the unknown, before existence, death, the unconscious, evil
Red – blood, sacrifice; violent passion, disorder, sunrise, birth, fire, emotion, wounds, death, sentiment, mother, anger, excitement, heat, physical stimulation
Green – hope, growth, envy, Earth, fertility, sensation, vegetation, death, water, nature, sympathy, adaptability, growth, envy
White (light) – purity, peace, innocence, goodness, Spirit, morality, creative force, the direction East, spiritual thought
Orange – fire, pride, ambition, egoism
Blue – clear sky, the day, the sea, height, depth, heaven, religious feeling, devotion, innocence, truth, spirituality, physical soothing and cooling
Violet – water, nostalgia, memory, advanced spirituality
Gold – Majesty, sun, wealth, corn (life dependency), truth
Silver – Moon, wealth
Common Number Symbols
Three – the Trinity (Father, Son, Holy Ghost); Mind, Body, Spirit, Birth, Life, Death, choices
Four – Mankind (four limbs), four elements, four seasons
Six – devil, evil
Seven – Divinity (3) + Mankind (4) = relationship between man and God, seven deadly sins, seven days of week, seven days to create the world, seven stages of civilization, seven colors of the rainbow, seven gifts of Holy Spirit.
Common Shape Symbols
Oval – woman, passivity
Triangle – communication, between heaven and earth, fire, the number 3, trinity, aspiration, movement upward,
return to origins, sight, light
Square – pluralism, earth, firmness, stability, construction, material solidity, the number four
Rectangle – the most rational, most secure, equal
Cross – the Tree of life, axis of the world, struggle, martyrdom, orientation in space
Cross-Roads or "X" - a choice that must be made, a decisive moment
Circle – Heaven, intellect, thought, sun, the number two, unity, perfection, eternity, oneness, celestial realm, hearing, sound
Spiral – the evolution of the universe, orbit, growth, deepening, cosmic motion, relationship between unity and multiplicity, macrocosm, breath, spirit, water
: combination of two words to create an entirely new word. Used in Anglo-Saxon poetry.
Examples: "whale-road" for ocean/river,
"ankle-biter" for a small child, "fender bender" for small accident
Elements of Poetic Structure
Elision or Elided Syllable:
The omission of a syllable by slurring over the pronunciation. Used in poetry to keep with a metrical pattern.
Comfortable: 4 syllables but often pronounced with 3
: a split in a line of poetry using either a hard stop with a period or a soft stop using a semi-colon. Often found alongside an enjambment.
: the continuation of a sentence without a pause beyond the end of a line, couplet, or stanza.
: an incomplete foot of meter.
One more unfortunate,
Weary of breath,
Rashly importunate,
Gone to her death!
or (Catalectic line)
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