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Transcript of Ab/In/Deductive Thinking
EEE 378 : THINK #16
Erica Johnson, Indradevi Nuon, Lala Tse
#3: Abductive Reasoning
#1 :Inductive Reasoning
#2: Deductive Reasoning: Opposite of Inductive Reasoning
Does not have to be proven/tested/true.
Could be false, even if the premise is true.
Erica is a grandma. Erica is a Swedish. All grandma are Swedish!
If something is true of a class of things in general, it is also true for all members of that class.
(use a major premise and minor premise to reach a conclusion)
Originates from the consequences of the assumed
Can be true or untrue!
If your assumption is true then that guarantees the truth of your conclusion
Could be logical (but untrue) even if the generalization is not true!
All females have 8 fingers Erica has 8 fingers!
1. Every summer, when the cotton wood trees bloom, you start to sneeze and your eyes water and itch. This morning, you saw a few cotton wood blossoms floating by. You can therefore logically conclude that:
a. summer has just officially started
b. you had better go out and buy some tissues
c. there are more cotton wood trees in the area than any other species
2. Each time you go to your city's biggest department store, you end up buying far more than you had planned on. You carefully make a list and plan to spend $25, but usually spend twice that amount. You can therefore logically conclude that:
a. the department store charges too much for its products
b. you need more items than you had originally thought
c. a need for immediate gratification is one of your main traits
Read carefully the information you are given (the premises) and consider what would be the most logical conclusion to draw from that evidence by using inductive reasoning.
3. For the past six months, you have gotten a massage. The therapist advises you to drink a big glass of water after each session, but you never do. Following each massage, you get a terrible headache. You can therefore logically conclude that:
a. massages cause massive dehydration
b. not drinking water is a serious health hazard
c. massages may very likely give you headaches
4. Your older brother gave you a coffee pot for Christmas. Every time you brew a pot of coffee, it tastes scalded. You have tried several brands of coffee but it doesn't make any difference.
You can therefore logically conclude that:
a. there is a malfunction with the coffee pot
b. it is time for you to stop drinking coffee
c. the type of coffee makes a big difference
5. Every June, your Aunt Patricia sends you a birthday check in the mail. Every July, your Uncle Ian sends you a check with a belated birthday card. When you go out to the mailbox on June 16, there is an envelope with your name on it waiting inside. You can therefore logically conclude that you are getting:
a. a check early from your Uncle Ian
b. Aunt Patricia's card
c. a letter from a friend
Try to answer the questions by using deductive reasoning
1. You have nine pigs. You must construct exactly four pens, with each containing an odd number of pigs. How would you do it?
2. A special force-field lets only certain objects pass through. Daffodils and hammers are allowed, but roses and wrenches aren’t. What determines whether an item can enter?
3. A father is four times as old as his son. In twenty years, he’ll be twice as old. How old are they now?
4. There is a small cabin in a forest. Inside are two dead men. The trees around the cabin are burning, although the cabin is not. The men had not been fighting and possessed no weapons. How did they die?
5. A man is looking at a photograph. His friend asks who it is. The man replies, “Brothers and sisters, I have none. But that man’s father is my father’s son.” Who is in the photograph?
Build three pens and put three pigs in each. Then build a fourth pen around the other three.
Only objects with consecutive repeated letters may pass.
The father is 40 and the son is 10.
The men were piloting a plane that crashed.
a process of making and testing predictions based on the best information available
Useful for forming hypothesis to be tested
entails making an educated guess after observing a phenomenon or using data
1. Doctors first look at test results and symptoms to make diagnosis.
2. Jurors make decision/judgement based on evidence presented to them
Scientists often use this method to generate theories about how universe works and discover the laws
1. Place the can on its side on a flat smooth surface like a table or a smooth floor.
2. Rub the blown up balloon back and forth through your hair really fast.
Now the fun part
- Hold the balloon close to the can without actually touching the can. The can will start to roll towards the balloon without you even touching it!
Based on what the observation and evidence provided by the experiment, can you form a hypothesis about what happen?
When you rub the balloon through your hair, invisible electrons (with a negative charge) build up on the surface of the balloon. This is called static electricity, which means "non-moving electricity" The electrons have the power to pull very light objects (with a positive charge) toward them - like the soda can.
Business Example: Consumer Targeting
To decide which customers to market your products to.
To extrapolate based on the characteristics of their product and their competitors which customers they will be more likely to attract
People often to seek security for loved ones
Source of inference
Business Example: Michael Hoskins
• Data Scientist
• Graduated from Bowling Green State University with a bachelor if business administration and a minor in finance
• President and Director of Data Junction Corporation for 15 years
by figuring out what the most logical explanation is of data in order to improve technology data
The more data he can gather the more accurate his predictions are
He has to find the source of why data runs the way it does in order to make software keep up with modern hardware
make sure that data for software are always keeping up with the fast pace technology environment and that data and information is always reliable to us.
How Hoskins uses abductive thinking:
Explanation of the conclusion