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Endocrine System

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Endocrine System

on 3 January 2011

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Transcript of Endocrine System

Endocrine System The Endocrine System is a system made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones that the body uses to maintain homeostasis.

This system of glands that produce hormones, help regulate functions including your mood, growth/developement, tissue functions, and metabolism.
MAJOR ENDOCRINE GLANDS The Pancreas!
The Pancreas is a gland that produces ------ that regulated blood sugar



The Pancreas!
This is a gland that produces insulin and glucagen that regulate blood sugar, enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids; and sodium bicarbonate, a base that neutralizes stomach acid
It regulates blood sugar levels by using beta cells, and releases insulin. This insulin is absorbed into the blood stream and it mixes to the beta cells in your blood. As the insulin makes contact with the cells of your muscles and LIVER, it starts its work. It can increase the amount of glucose cells absorb.
The pancres is located towars the top of your abdominal area.
Insulin converts glucose into glycogen molecules, which are more complex and insoluble. Glycogen is stored in the liver.
Glucagon breaks down glycogen into glucose Pituitary Glands!
A gland in the base of the skull that secretes nine hormones that directly regulate many body functions and control the actions of several other endocrine glands
The pituitary is located below the hypothalamus gland in your brain. Hypothalamus!
A brain structure that acts as a control center for recognition and analysis of hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger, and body temperature. It is located in your skull above the pituitary gland. Thyroid Gland!
It has the major role in regulating the body's metabolism; cells in these glands produce thyroxine, which is made up of the amino acid tryosine and the mineral iodine.
The thyroid is located below your adams apple Parathyroid Glands!
Hormones from the thyroid gland and the parathyroid glands maintain homeostasis in blood calcium levels; parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH), which regulates the calcium levels in the blood; these hormones are also important for promoting proper nerve and muscle function and bone structure.
The parathyroid glands are located behind the thyroid gland at the top of the neck. Adrenal Glands!
These glands help the body prepare for and deal with stress; has an outer part called the adrenal cortex and an inner part called the adrenal medulla; adrenal medulla produces the "fight or flight" response to stress; they stimulate the release of extra glucose into the blood to help produce a sudden burst of energy Adrenal glands!
These glands help the body prepare for and deal with stress; has an outer part called the adrenal cortex and an inner part called the adrenal medulla; adrenal medulla produces the "Fight or Flight" response to stressthey stimulate the release of excess glucose into the blood to help produce a sudden burst of energy.
The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys. Feedback Mechanism!
This occurs when the level of a certain hormone gets too high. Another hormone will make the gland that is OVER-secreting the hormone STOP or SLOW its production. This will make the level of hormone decrease over time, therefore returning to homeostasis. Action of a Hormone On a Target organ/cell!
Hormones influence their target cells by binding to specific receptors.
The hormone receptor in the reaction initates the process of transforming the chemical message into a cell response.
Receptors are protein molecules embedded in the nuclear membrane or the cytoplasm. Testes!!!!!
There are normally two testes located in the scrotum of male animals.
Testes produce two major hormones, Testosterone and inhibin.
Testosterone is a steroid hormone The Ovaries.
The ovaries are located above the fallopian tubes in the wall of the pelvis.
The primary function of the ovaries is to produce ova, which are eggs that produce female hormones including estrogen.
Estrogen is significantly present in women during their peaking reproductive age, and it also helps promote the development of female sex characteristics.
Ovaries are only found in females.
Estrogen can be present in males, it regulates sperm maturation. Disorders and Complications of the Endocrine System.
Endocrine disorders usually occur if your hormone production is either too high to low.
Endocrine diseases usually occur if your body reponds to hormones irregularly. Hypoglycemia
Hypoglycemia occurs when glucose in the blood becomes too low to fuel your bodies activities.
Causes-
Missing a meal
Delaying a meal
Alcoholic Consumption
Excersising often
Too much diabetes medication
Symptoms-
Hunger
Confusion
Sleepiness
Difficulty Speaking Diabetes
A disease where either too little insulin is produced, your body is resistant to insulin, or both of the two.
Symptoms-
Blurry Vision
Fatigue
Hunger
Frequent Urination/ Excessive Thirst
Weight Loss
Increased Appetite
Insulin pumps are usually required to maintain homeostasis of insulin in the body.
Pituitary Gland Disorders
-Tumors near the pituitary gland are most frequent cause of problems. They put pressure on the pituitary gland.
Symptoms-
Headache
Dizziness
Vomiting
Weight Gain/ Loss Thyroid Disorders
Goiter-an enlargement of the thyroid glands.
Causes- Iodine Deficiency
Effects-
Causes trouble swallowing and breathing
Heat Intolerance
Weight Loss
Increased appetite
Generally "throws your metabolism out-of-wack" Steroids and Athletes
Steroids cause your muscles to "bulk-up". In athletes, it increases strength, endurance and muscle mass. Artificial Testosterone in Steroids cause your muscles to build up strength. This has serious side effects on both male and females.
Males- can cause devlopment of breasts, shrinking of testicles, sterility(unable to have children),erectile dysfunction and pain when urinating
Females- increased facial hair growth, aquiring a deeper voice, shrinking of the breasts, menstrual cycle changes.
In most sports, if athletes are caught doing steroids or other growth hormones, they could either be fined or removed from the league. This is why many athletes choose not to take artificial growth hormones. Not only do they harm your body, they can destroy your sports career. By Anthony Doti, Kenny Chiu, Richard Mitchell, and Jack Johnson
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