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Transcript of Toulmin's Model
Element One: The Claim
Element Two: The Grounds
These are facts, statistics, and information that support
the claim and typically employ ethos, pathos, or logos.
Ex: Students who read for at least fifteen minutes a
day are more likely to score in the eightieth percentile
on standardized tests.
Element Three: The Warrant
The bridge between the claim and the grounds that establishes a logical connection
Ex: Daily reading in and out of school is an easy way to improve achievement.
This is the stance or position that the writer is taking in order for the reader to reach his/her conclusion.
For example: You should read every day.
Three questions can help students choose a stance for a particular situation:
1. What is your point of view?
2. What is your claim?
3. What is your request?
Stephen Toulmin has six elements to formulate an argument. The first three elements:
provide a strong basis for students to develop a solid formal argument. When students include the last three elements:
, they create a more complex understanding for argumentation.
Words that modify the intensity of an argument's claim
(i.e. sometimes, almost, and at least).
This statement may come after a counterargument or in anticipation of one.
Element Five: The Qualifier
Element Four: The Backing
This is additional information that,
while not as strong as the grounds
support the claim.
Example: Most of the classrooms in this school have a sustained silent reading program that makes it possible for students to start a daily reading plan.
Element 6: The Rebuttal
Goal: To analyze the perspective of someone else's argument and create their own.
Example: the word
in the sentence- Most of the classrooms in this school have...
example: The library has many books available for students who are interested in
all types of topics.