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Chapter 23 Enviromental Issues
Transcript of Chapter 23 Enviromental Issues
Hour 5 Environmental Issues Ch 23 sect 1 Vocab Words Natural Resource: Anything in the environment that is used by people.
Renewable Resource: A resource that is either always available or is naturally replaced in a relatively short time.
Non-Renewable Resource: Resources that are not replaced on a useful time frame.
Pollution: The contamination of Earths land, water,and air.
Environmental Science: The study of the natural processes that occur in the environment and how humans can affect them. Resource Use Anything in the environment that is used by people is called a resource. The two types of resources are called non renewable and renewable resources. Renewable resources can be renewed in a short time. Non- Renewable resources cannot be replaced in a useful time frame. Population Growth 1000 B.C: 50 Million people.
A.D. 1: 285 people.
A.D. 1000: 300 million people
A.D. 2000: 6 billion Ch.23 Sect 2 Vocab Clear Cutting:cutting down all trees in an area.
Selective Cutting:cutting down only some species of trees in an area.
Sustainable Yield: the amount of renewable resource such as trees that can be harvested regularly.
Fishery: an area with a large population of valuable ocean organisms.
Aquaculture: the practice of raising fish and other water dwelling organisms for food. Managing Forests Sect 2 Logging Methods: There are two major logging methods:
Clear Cutting and Selective Cutting. Clear Cutting is cutting down all the trees in an area. And Selective Cutting is only cutting down some of the trees in an area.These logging methods has disadvantages and advantages:
Advantages- wood will be cut and new roads, buildings, and cities will be built.
Disadvantages: it is bad for the environment and may cause flooding and erosion. Pollution The contamination of earths land and water. Pollution can be caused by a variety of factor: chemicals, noise, heat, and light.
Pollution can destroy wildlife and can cause human health problems. Also pollution can run off the land and pollute bodies of water. Environmental Decisions Making decisions impacts the environment.This is why you need to balance different needs, costs, and benefits. To help balance the different options on an environmental issue, decision makers weigh the costs and benefits of a proposal.
Costs and Benefits:
Balancing Different Needs: Environmental decision making requires a balance between needs of the environment and needs of people. Main Natural Resources US: oil and natural gas
Russia: fossil fuels
Brazil: iron ore Sustainable Yield :Forests can be managed to provide a sustainable yield. Sustainable Yield is an amount of renewable resources such as trees that can be harvested regularly without reducing the future supply. Certified Wood: This organization oversees certification of forests that are well managed and provide good working conditions for workers. Once a forest is certified its wood carries a well managed label. This label allows business and individuals to select wood from forests that are managed for sustainable yield. Fisheries An area with a large population of valuable organisms is called a fishery.
Fishing Limits: Laws can ban the fishing of certain species and smaller sized fish.
Fishing Methods: Some fishing methods are poisoning fish with cyanide and stunning them by exploding dynamite underwater.
Aquaculture: The practice of raising fish and other water organisms for food is called aquaculture.
New Resource: More than half the animal protein eaten throughout the world is fish. One way to feed a growing human population is to fish for and introduce new species. Ch 23 sect 3 Vocab Biodiversty: The number of different species in an area.
Keystone Species: A species that influences the survival of many others in an ecosystem.
Extinction: The disapperance of all members if a species from earth.
Endangered Species: A species in danger of becoming extinct in the near future.
Threatened species: A species that could become endangered species in the near future.
Habitat Destruction: The loss of a natural habitat.
Habitat Fragmentation: The breaking of a habitat into smaller, isolated pieces.
Poaching: Illegal killing or removal of wildlife from their habitats
Captive Breeding: The matin of animals in zoos or wildlife preserves. Value of Biodiversity
Sect 3 Economic Value: Plants, Animals, and Organisms all have economic values.
Ecological Value: All the species in an ecosystem are connected to one another. A keystone species that influences the survival of many other species in an ecosystem. Factors Affecting Biodiversity Sect 3 Factors that affect biodiversity in an ecosystem include area, climate, and diversity of a niche.
Area: a large area within an ecosystem will contain more species than a small area.
Climate: the number of species increases from the poles toward the Earth. The forests cover only about 7 percent of Earths land surface.
Niche Diversity: Coral Reefs make up less than 1 percent of the oceans area, But reefs are home to 20 percent of the worlds saltwater fish species. Gene Pool Diversity Organisms receive a combination of genes from their parents. Genes determine an organisms characteristics from its ability to fight disease and its appearance.
The organisms in one species share many genes. But each organism also has some genes that differ from those of other individuals. These individual differences make up the total gene "pool" of that species. Extinction of Species The disappearance of all members of a species from Earth is called extinction. Extinction is a natural process. But in the last few centuries, the number of species becoming extinct has increased dramatically. Species in danger of becoming extinct are called an endangered species. Species that could become endangered in the near future are called threatened species. A natural disaster such as a earthquake can damage an ecosystem. Human activities can also threaten biodiversity. These activities include habitat destruction, poaching, pollution, and introduction of exotic species.
Habitat Destruction: the loss of a natural habitat.
Poaching: The illegal killing or removal of wildlife from their habitats.
Pollution: Some species are endangered because of pollution.
Exotic Species: introducing exotic species can be very harmful to biodiversity. Causes Of Extinction Protecting Biodiversity Three successful approaches to protecting biodiversity are captive breeding, laws, treaties, and habitat preservation.
Captive Breeding: mating of animals in zoos or wildlife preserves.
Laws and Treaties: Laws help protect endangered species.
Habitat Preservation: the most effective way to preserve biodiversity is to protect the whole ecosystem.