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Rhythm, Meter, and Pattern
Transcript of Rhythm, Meter, and Pattern
use ictus ( ) for stressed syllable the way syllables are stressed relates to how a sentence is comprehended rhetorical stresses - used to make intentions clear end-stopped line: the end of the line corresponds with a natural speech pause
run-on line: the sense of the line hurries on into the next line
caesuras: pauses that occur in the middle of lines, either grammatical or rhetorical poetic line - unit that creates pauses in the flow of speech to-day (toDAY) I don’t believe YOU.
I don’t believe you.
I don’t beLIEVE you. ______ __ ________ meter - identifying characteristic of rhythmic language Table of Feet metrical verse - accents of language arranged to occur at apparently equal intervals of time rhythm: designates flow of actual, pronounced sound rhythm vs meter meter: patterns that sounds follow when arranged in metrical verse normally of one accented syllable plus one or two unaccented syllables foot - basic unit of meter Name of Feet Adjectival form to-day, the sun dai-ly, went to Iambic Iamb 5+7= (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Examples Trochee Trochaic in-ter-vene, in the dark Anapest Anapestic mul-ti-ple, col-or of Dactyl Dactylic true-blue Spondee Spondaic Duple meters Triple meters another basic unit of measurement in metrical verse Line metrical measured by naming the number of feet in them Names Number of Feet 1 Dimeter 2 Monometer 5+7= (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Trimeter Tetrameter Pentameter Hexameter 3 4 5 6 the third unit of measurement Stanza call attention to some of the sounds because they depart from what is regular Metrical Variations Substitution Three types process of defining the metrical form of a poem
1) identify the prevailing foot
2) name the number of feet in a line
3) describe the stanzaic pattern Scansion consists of a group of lines whose metrical pattern is repeated throughout the poem three types of varying meter Anacrusis Extra-metrical syllables replacing regular foot with another one added at the beginnings or ends of lines the omission of an unaccented syllable at the beginning of a line Grammatical and Rhetorical Pauses grammatical pauses pauses for periods longer than pauses for commas longer duration than those by syntax and rhetoric rhetorical pauses the arrangement of ideas, images, and thoughts Structure internal ordering of materials outside symmetry Form external pattern three types of form continuous form Types of Form stanzaic form fixed form lines follow each other without formal groupings
only breaks dictated by units of meaning in series of stanzas traditional pattern that applies to the whole poem limerick - pattern is anapestic; humorous and nonsense verse Fixed form sonnet - must be 14 lines; almost always uses iambic pentameter Italian (Petrarchan) sonnet - divided usually between eight lines (octave) and six lines (sestet); corresponds to division of thought Sonnets English (Shakespearean) sonnet - composed by three quatrains and a concluding couplet (abab cdcd efef gg)
units marked off by rhymes and often corresponds with development of thought syllabic verse - counts only the number of syllables per line regardless of accents Writing Styles free verse - predominating type of poetry being written today, similar rhythm to prose and the line is a rhythmic unit; poetic line is basic rhythmic unit villanelle - French fixed form haiku - Japanese form; consists of three lines of five, seven, and five syllables each terza rima - interlocking scheme with pattern aba bcb cdc etc. blank verse - iambic pentameter, unrhymed; used for large proportion of the greatest English poetry Works Cited . "Definitions of Poetry Terms and Devices." . N.p.. Web. 21 Oct 2012. <http://cuip.uchicago.edu/~kchayes/2003/definitionspoetry.html>. natural pause caused by syntax and phrasing like building like blueprint 147 The Aim Was Song 151 Because I could not stop for Death Before man came to blow it right
The wind once blew itself untaught,
And did its loudest day and night
In any rough place where it caught.
Man came to tell it what was wrong:
It hadn't found the place to blow;
It blew too hard--the aim was song.
And listen--how it ought to go!
He took a little in his mouth,
And held it long enough for north
To be converted into south,
And then by measure blew it forth.
By measure. It was word and note,
The wind the wind had meant to be--
A little through the lips and throat.
The aim was song--the wind could see.
Robert Frost (1874-1963) Because I could not stop for Death,
He kindly stopped for me;
The carriage held but just ourselves
We slowly drove; he knew no haste,
And I had put away
My labor and my leisure too,
For his civility.
We passed the school, where children strove,
At recess, in the ring,
We passed the fields of gazing grain,
We passed the setting sun,
Or rather, he passed us;
The dews drew quivering and chill;
For only gossamer, my gown;
My tippet, only tulle.
We paused before a house that seemed
A swelling of the ground;
The roof was scarcely visible.
The cornice, in the ground.
Since then, 'tis centuries, and yet
Feels shorter than the day
I first surmised the horses' heads
Were toward eternity.
Emily Dickinson (1830-1886) What devices used so far in chapter 12 are present in the poem? 8 syllables per line, grammatical pauses, substitution: iambic with anapestic What devices used so far in chapter 12 are present in the poem? rhythm: flow of words, meter: Gilligan's island theme song What is the purpose of the change in the fourth stanza? It gives emphasis to the meaning
Death is passing over them faster, they can't out run or defy death 171 That time of year That time of year thou mayst in me behold
When yellow leaves, or none, or few, do hang
Upon those boughs which shake against the cold,
Bare ruined choirs where late the sweet birds sang.
In me thou see'st the twilight of such day
As after sunset fadeth in the west,
Which by and by black night doth take away,
Death's second self, that seals up all in rest.
In me thou see'st the glowing of such fire,
That on the ashes of his youth doth lie
As the deathbed whereon it must expire,
Consumed with that which it was nourished by.
This thou perceivest, which makes thy love more strong,
To love that well which thou must leave ere long.
William Shakespeare (1564-1616) What devices used in chapter 12 and 14 are present in this poem? rhyming, pattern: abab,cdcd,efef, gg, also Shakespearean sonnet 172. A Handful of Limericks There was a young lady from Niger
Who smiled as she road on a tiger;
They returned from the ride
With the lady inside
And the smile on the face of the tiger.
Anonymous What devices from chapter 12 and 14 are used in this poem? rhyming, pattern: limericks, aa, bb, a R. Arp, Thomas. Perrine's Literature. Seventh. Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Print.