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respiratory

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by

Amber Dowdy

on 15 February 2011

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Transcript of respiratory

NASAL SEPTUM:
divides nasal cavity into L & R parts turbinates: bones that protrude into nasal cavity, increase surface area for filtering dust & dirt cilia: hairs in nose, trap dust/dirt sinuses: cavities in skull, ducts connect them to nasal cavity, lined with mucus membranes **Give resonance to the voice pharynx: throat, passage way for air/food, 5 inches long when food is swallowed, the EPIGLOTTIS closes over the larynx, preventing food from entering the lungs Larynx: voice box ~ triangular shape below pharnyx, vocal cords are within larynx, Adam's apple trachea: windpipe, 4 1/2 inches long, walls are alternate bands of membrane and C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage~ keep trachea open lined with mucus membranes, coughing & expectoration gets rid of dust-laden materials bronchi & bronchioles: lower end of trachea divides into L &R bronchus bronchial tubes: made of cartlidge ALVEOLI: composed of single layer of epithelial tissue
*inner surface covered with SURFACTANT (keeps it from collapsing) Lungs: fill thoracic cavity
upper part = apex
lower part = base
fits snugly over diapgragm, spongy and porus ~ floats R lung = larger and shorter, displacaed by liver, has THREE lobes L lung = smaller, displaced by heart has TWO lobes Pleura: thin, moist slippery membrane that covers lungs, duoble-walled sac ~ filled with pleural fluid to prevent friction FUNCTIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM:
1.) external respiration
2.) internal respiration
3.) cellular respiration
4.) production of sound
pulmonary ventilation (breathing)
inspiration: muscles lieft ribs outward, sternum rises and diaphragm contracts & moves downward ~ this increases the volume of the lungs and air rushes in expiration: opposite
action takes place ,this
is a passive process Normal adult = 14-20 breaths per minute
**What can cause this to INCREASE?
**What can cause this to DECREASE? coughing: deep breath followed by a forceful expulsion of air- to clear lower respt. tract hiccups ~ spasm of the diaphragm and spasmotic closure of the epiglottis ~ irritation to diaphragm sneezing: air foreced through the nose to clear respiratory tract
yawning: deep prolonged breathing that fills the lungs, increases oxygen within the blood apnea: no breathing
dyspnea: difficult, labored breathing
hyperpnea: increase in depth and rate of breathing, abnormalexaggeration of respiratory movements hyperventilation: rapid, breathing
causes body to lose CO2 too quickly symptoms: dizziness, possible
fainting
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