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Performance Enhancing Substances and Techniques

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by

David Paniccia

on 20 December 2011

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Transcript of Performance Enhancing Substances and Techniques

Performance Enhancing Substances and Techniques
Pharmacological Aids
Performancing Enhancing in Competitive Sports
Nutritional Aids
"An era of chemical McCarthyism is at hand, and 'guilty until proven innocent' is the new slogan."
- George Lundberg ,editor, American Medical Association Journal
- Today, athletes are increasingly pressured to improve perfomance
- Not only for victory, but social & economic rewards
Vitamins, minerals, protein, amino acids, carnitine, creatine, caffeine & extracts from plant sources.
Some natural products contain hidden amounts of steriods or banned substances.
Excessive consumption of micronutrients have toxic effects.
Vitamins & Minerals
Carnitine
Caffeine
Creatine
Protein & Amino Acids
Does not improve performance or training potenial but meets dietary intake of micronutrients.
Overdose of Vit & Mins have harmful affects: illness/tissue damage.
Fat-soluable vitamins = A&D/Water-soluable = C&B ,have toxic affects when ingested in large amounts.
Supplements can be of benefit only where a clear deficiency is indicated. i.e - runners benefit from carbohydrare drinks and energy bars.
Excessive amounts of protein causes over production of urea,which leads to loss of H20 (dehydration, muscle cramps,& impairment of thermoregulatory functions.)
Widely known as a "fat burner" Claims: increases VO2max, delays fatigue,reduction of body fat.
Primarily stored in skeletal and cardiac muscle.
Fatty acids = biproduct of fat burning process. Provides energy during rest, and moderate exercise.
Theorized- Carnitine spares glycogen & reduces production of lactic acid.
Carnitine is synthesized in the kidneys & liver - meat poultry, fish, & milk prodcts are excellent dietary sources.
Adquate levels of Carnitine remain in muscle tissue during exercise, therefore it is not a concern for deficiency.
This amino acid is redily present in normal skeletal muscle and facilitates the rapid production of ATP, providing immediate source of energy during short periods of muscular exertion.
Is an alkaloid , found in such foods as coffee, tea, & chocolate.
Contributes to body function/recovery (ie. muscle development)
Athletes concerned with muscle mass, strength, and endurance are most likely to use additional supplements.
Protein is made up of chain links called amino acids which help to increase muscle mass.
Unless one's body does not have adequate amounts of protein, protein supplements will not work.
ie. long distance runners & gymnasts = lack of protein
Why?
Needed in the body to re-synthesize ATP (used for energy) from ADP (adenosine diphosphate)
Increase storage of ATP (energy) in the muscle
May improve ability to maintain performance but will not improve maximal force.
Results vary from individual to individual
Blood sugar/ insulin problems/ diabetes
No long term studies
Increase performance during short & intense exercise
Increase alertness, decrease fatigue, releases adrenalin
Diuretic effects include: dehydration, nervousness, & irritability
FACT: An athlete would need to consume more than three cups of coffee to exceed the upper urinary caffeine limit set by the Internationl Olympic Committee.
Athletes use drugs to: mask pain, increase muscle mass thereby boost speed and strength, recover from intense training, increase their oxygen carrying capacity, and maintain body weight.
Practices involving the consumption of pharmacological aids is defined by the World Anti-Doping Agency as "the use of an artifice, whether substance or method potenially dangerous to athletes health and/or capable of enhancing their performances."
Competitive professional sports conduct regular drug testing. If such drugs are detected in the athlete's urine, the penalty is sure to be high.
Pain Masking
Anabolic Steroids
HGH
Pro Hormones
EPO
Physiological Aids
Blood Doping
Extracting blood, infused later
Decrease lactic levels, increase cardiac output
USE AND EFFECTS
BENEFITS TO ATHLETE
Changes athletic performance
Performance enhanced
HEALTH RISKS
Rejection of blood
Bad blood
Needles (risk of infection)
Drug Masking
USE AND EFFECTS
USE AND EFFECTS
USE AND EFFECTS
USE AND EFFECTS
USE AND EFFECTS
USE AND EFFECTS
BENEFITS TO ATHLETE
BENEFITS TO ATHLETE
BENEFITS TO ATHLETE
BENEFITS TO ATHLETE
BENEFITS TO ATHLETE
HEALTH RISKS
HEALTH RISKS
HEALTH RISKS
HEALTH RISKS
HEALTH RISKS
Heroine, morphine - blocks pain impulses to brain
Can perform without pain
Can lead to serious injury & damage beyond repair /addictive
Increase protein synthesis and lean body mass
Increase muscle mass / strength / decrease body fat & recovery time
Liver damage / increase aggresiveness / women masculinity
Androgenic and (steroid)
Increase production of testosterone
Increases physical power & recovery / decreases body fat & muscle breakdown
Acne, baldness, breast development in males, stunted growth & increased violent behaviour
Increased level of hemoglobin, thereby increasing oxygen carrying capacity.
Increased O2 to muscle & efficiency
delays build up of lactic acid
Increased red blood cells cause heart to work harder
Cardiac fatigue / cardiac failure
Injection of synthetic HGH (already produced in the body)
Increased athletic performance, muscle strength, recovery
Heart problems, abnormal growth of hands, feet, and vital organs.
Skeletal abnormalities
Methodological means of escaping detection of banned substances
Including agents that dilute the concenctration of banned drugs in the bloodstream
Diuretics, increase amount of urine produced, thereby can dilute the concentration of banned substances in the urine test.
Rumoured: in major competiton, the exchange for a clean persons urine, and catheterization.
Any method used by an athlete to escape detection is banned.
Physiological Aids used by athletes today include blood doping and drug masking. Both methods banned by the International Olympic Committe and other sport-governing bodies.
Hope you enjoyed the presentation !
Alcohol
Marijuana
Local Anaesthetics
Other Restricted Substances
Low dose = sedative effects
Increased dose = confusion, decreased reaction time, & poor coordination
Detectable by blood or breath testing
adversely affect psychomotor function and decrease performance
Controlled and regulated in a number of sports
Corticosteroids
Beta Blockers
Used to block pain
More serious injury can result.
Permitted by the IOC or sports federation if informed in writing and medically justified.
Anti-inflammatory
Used legitmately in the treatment of asthma
Use must be approved by the IOC
Decrease heart rate
Moderates muscle blood flow
used in sports which require steady action
Side effects: low blood pressure & sleep disturbances
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