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the maya/inca, and aztecs
Transcript of the maya/inca, and aztecs
and Religion They had one ruler, and under them was nobles such as judges and law enforcers. Then came warriors, and at the bottom was slaves and prisoners. The Aztecs worship the sun god. They make human sacrifices to ensure the sun will rise each day. And they pray to there gods during droughts, floods and disasters. Education... Schooling! Priests are the keepers of knowledge and ran schools. They had knowledge of astronomy,mathematics and language. Mayas Mayan city-states flourished from the Yucatanan southern Mexico through much of Central America. Mayans lived in a tropical environment, sense there was so much water they had to clear the dense rainforest, had to raise fields, and build channels (to drain drained excess water). There for the complex system was able to produce enough maize and other crops to support other rapidly growing cities. They had large temples that priest would climb up to perform sacrifices on high platforms, while normal people watched from the plazas from far below. But some temples served as burial places for nobles and priests. Takal boasted large palaces and huge stone pillars covered with carvings. Tikal boasted large palaces and huge stone pillars with carvings. Social classes There was also social classes. At the top was chiefs and nobles. In the middle was mostly farmer, which most people were farmers. And at the bottom was the nobody's. The middle class (farmers) grew crops such as: corn, beans, and squash, as well as fruit trees, cotton and tropical flowers. Men cultivated crops and then women turned it into food. Mayans advance in learning! They developed a hieroglyphics writing system and just has recently been deciphered. The Inca's Gradually they expanded inland, farming the river valleys up into the highland plateaus. Using careful irrigation, they grew corn, cotton, squash, and beans. The Incan empire covered a wide variety climates and terrains in western South America. Thousands of years ago, people settles in fishing villages along the desert coast of Peru. Government The Sapa Inca exercised absolute power over the empire. Claiming he was divine, the son of the sun itself, he was also the chief religious leader. Like the pharaohs of ancient Egypt, the Inca god-king owned all the land, herds, mines, and people. From their mountain capital at Cuzco, the Incas ran an efficient government with a chain of command reaching into every village. Nobles ruled the provinces along with local chieftains whom the Incas had conquered. Below them, officials carried out the day-to-day business of collecting taxes and enforces laws. Specially trained officials kept records on a quipu, a collection of knotted, colored strings. Modern scholars think that quipus noted dates and events as well as statistics on population and crops. Roads and Runners To unite their empire, the Inca imposed their own language, Quechua, and region on the people. They also created one of the great road systems in history. Hundreds of bridges spanned rivers and deep gorges. Steps were cut into steep slopes and tunnels dug through hillsides. Even more impressive than the roads that united the Roman empire, the Incan road system was unmatched until modern times. The roads allowed armies and news to move rapidly throughout the empire. At regular stations, runners waited to carry messages. Relays of runners could carry news of a revolt swiftly from a distant province the capital. Lives of the Inca The Incas strictly regulated the lives of millions of people within their empire. People lived in close-knit communities, called ayllus. Leaders of each ayllus carried out government orders, assigning jobs to each family and organizing the community to work the land. Government officials arranged marriages to ensure that men and women were settled at a certain age. Farming Farmers expanded the step terraces built by earlier people. On steep hillside, they carved out strips of land to be held in place by stone walls. Farmers had to spend part of each year working land for the emperor and the temples as well as for their own communities. The government took possession of each harvest, dividing it among the people and storing part in case of famine. Religion Like other early peoples, the Incas were polytheistic, worshiping many gods linked to the force of nature. People offered food, clothing, and drink to the guardian spirits of the home and the village. Religion was tied to the routines of life. Each month had its own festival, from the great ripening and the dance of the young maize to the festival of water. A powerful class of priests served the gods, celebrating their special festivals and tending to their needs. Chief among the gods was Inti, the sun god. His special attendants, the "Chosen Woman," played a key and honored role in Incan religious rituals. Festivals were celebrated with ceremonies, sports, and games. Ruling an Empire Pachacuti, a skilled warrior and leader, was the founder of the Incan empire. In 1438, he proclaimed himself Sapa Inca, or emperor, and embarked on a policy of conquest. Once he subdued neighboring people, he enlisted them in armies for future campaigns. In this way, he and his son extended Incan rule from Ecuador in the north to Chile in the south. The Fall of the Inca At its height, the Incan civilization, like those of Middle America, was a center of learning. Although the Incas were less advanced in astronomy than the Mayas, they did have a calender. They also excelled in medicine. They used herbs as antiseptics and perform surgery on the skull to relieve swelling caused by wounds. Then in 1525, the emperor Huayna Capac died suddenly of an unknown plague that swept across the land. As he had no named a successor, civil was broke out between two of his sons. The fighting weakened the empire at a crucial moment. Like the Aztec to the north, the Incas soon faced an even greater threat from Spanish invaders. The Mayans kept there scribes in books made of bark from trees, then spanish conquerors later burned most of the scribes. Mayan priests needed to measure time accurately in order to hold ceremonies at the correct moment. After while many priest became expert astronomers and mathematicians. Mayans created an accurate 365- day solar calender and a 260 day calender for Venus (based on orbit). Mayan priests also made a numbering system and understood the concept of zero. The Mayas Decline About A.D. 900, the Mayas abandoned their cities. That meant they had left their temples and palaces behind. Later on plants would eventually take over and grow on top of the temples and other structures they had built. Today they are refereed to as the "Lost Cities".