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French Revolution A.B.C Book
Transcript of French Revolution A.B.C Book
It was the monarchic, aristocratic, social and political system established in the Kingdom of France from the 15th century until the later 18th century under the late Valois and Bourbon dynasties. The administrative and social structures of the Ancien Régime were the result of years of state-building, legislative acts, internal conflicts and civil wars, but they remained a confusing patchwork of local privilege and historic differences until the French Revolution ended the system.
E. Estates-General of 1789
It was organized into three estates: the clergy, the nobility, and the rest of France. On the last occasion that the Estates-General had met, in 1614, each estate held one vote, and any two could override the third. The Parlement of Paris feared the government would attempt to gerrymander an assembly to rig the results. Thus, they required that the Estates be arranged as in 1614.
H. Hôtel de Ville
Is the building housing the city's local administration. It has been the location of the municipality of Paris since 1357. It serves multiple functions, housing the local administration, the Mayor of Paris and also serves as a venue for large receptions.
P. Pauline Léon
Is a word from the French language, used in the fields of political economy, political philosophy, sociology, and history, which originally denoted the wealthy stratum of the middle class that originated during the latter part of the Middle
Is a management level position responsible for supervising the quality of accounting and financial reporting of an organization.
Is a practice that attempts to establish a political advantage for a particular party or group by manipulating district boundaries to create partisan advantaged districts. The resulting district apportionment is known as a gerrymander however, that word can also refer to the process.
O. Olympe de Gouges
It was originally the County of Albon, but the counts took the title Dauphin, from which the region gets its name. It was a state of the Holy Roman Empire, although after 1349 it was ruled by the King of France, and often by his heir, with the title of Dauphin.
A. Ancien Régime
F. Financial crisis
J. Jacques Necker
Louis XVI ascended to the throne amidst a financial crisis; the state was nearing bankruptcy and outlays outpaced income. This was because of France’s financial obligations stemming from involvement in the Seven Years' War and its participation in the American Revolutionary War. In May 1776, finance minister Turgot was dismissed, after he failed to enact reforms.
X. XYZ Affair
W. Wolfe Tone
L. Louis Antoine de Saint-Just
M. Madame Roland
R. Roman Catholicism
T. Theroigne de Mericourt
V. Vichy France
Léon was born to chocolate makers Pierre-Paul Léon and Mathrine Telohan in Paris on 28 September 1768, one of six children. Her father died in 1784, after which time Léon worked alongside her mother in exchange for free room and board and supported her siblings. It is believed that she became a political radical after witnessing the execution of leaders of a bread riot.
She was an eccentric female participant in the French Revolution. She was born at Marcourt a small town in Luxembourg province, in modern Belgium. She is known both for her portrayal in the French Revolutionary press and for her subsequent mental breakdown and institutionalization.
Born in 1748 Marie Gouze, was a French playwright and political activist whose feminist and abolitionist writings reached a large audience. She began her career as a playwright in the early 1780s. As political tension rose in France, de Gouges became increasingly politically involved. She became an outspoken advocate for improving the condition of slaves in the colonies as of 1788.
Better known simply as Madame Roland and born Marie-Jeanne Phlippon was, together with her husband Jean-Marie Roland de la Platière, a supporter of the French Revolution and influential member of the Girondist faction. She fell out of favour during the Reign of Terror and died on the guillotine.
Was a split in the Anglican churches of England, Scotland and Ireland in the aftermath of the Glorious Revolution of 1688, over whether William of Orange and his wife Mary could legally be recognised as King and Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland.
The French invaded Switzerland and turned it into an ally known as the "Helvetic Republic," The interference with localism and traditional liberties was deeply resented, although some modernizing reforms took place. Resistance was strongest in the more traditional Catholic bastions, with armed uprisings braking out in spring 1798 in the central part of Switzerland.
Officially the French State was France during the regime of Marshal Philippe Pétain, during World War II, from the German victory in the Battle of France to the Allied liberation in August 1944. Following the defeat in June 1940, President Albert Lebrun appointed Marshal Pétain as premier. After making peace with Germany, Pétain and his government voted to reorganize the discredited Third Republic into an authoritarian regime.
Theobald Wolfe Tone, posthumously known as Wolfe Tone was a leading Irish revolutionary figure and one of the founding members of the United Irishmen and is regarded as the father of Irish republicanism. He was captured by British forces at Lough Swilly in Donegal and taken prisoner. Before he was to be executed, Wolfe Tone attempted suicide and subsequently died from his wounds eight days after the attempt, thus avoiding being hanged as a convicted traitor to the British Crown for his involvement in the 1798 Irish Rebellion.
Swiss banker and director general of finance under Louis XVI of France. He was overpraised in his lifetime for his somewhat dubious skill with public finances and unduly deprecated by historians for his alleged vacillation and lack of statesmanship in the opening phases of the French Revolution.
The break with the Roman papacy and the establishment of an independent Church of England came during the reign of Henry VIII. When Pope Clement VII refused to approve the annulment of Henry’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon, the English Parliament, at Henry’s insistence, passed a series of acts that separated the English church from the Roman hierarchy.
The Roman Empire was an international political system in which Italy was only a part, though an important part. When the empire fell, a series of barbarian kingdoms initially ruled the peninsula, but, after the Lombard invasion of 568–569, a network of smaller political entities arose throughout Italy.
Was an undeclared war fought mostly at sea between the United States of America and the French Republic from 1798 to 1800. In the United States, the conflict was sometimes also referred to as the Undeclared War with France, the Pirate Wars and the Half-War.
Mostly known as Saint-Just,a was a military and political leader during the French Revolution. The youngest of the deputies elected to the National Convention in 1792, Saint-Just rose quickly in their ranks and became a major leader of the government of the French First Republic. He spearheaded the movement to execute King Louis XVI and later drafted the radical French Constitution of 1793.
Was a political and diplomatic episode in 1797 and 1798, early in the administration of John Adams, involving a confrontation between the United States and Republican France that led to an undeclared naval war called the Quasi-War. The name derives from the substitution of the letters X, Y and Z for the names of French diplomats in documents released by the Adams administration.