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Sociolinguistics & Dialectology
Transcript of Sociolinguistics & Dialectology
In what ways do languages vary?
Boundaries of Sociolinguistics
According to Hudson (1996, p. 4),
is "the study of language in relation to society" whereas
the sociology of language
is "the study of society in relation to language."
Two fundamentals to "the study of language in relation to society":
Knowledge of Language
What does it mean to know a language?
Language & Culture
What is the relationship between linguistic items and social concepts?
Sociolinguistics & Dialectology
Chomsky & Labov
Correlation ≠ Causation
Throughout the semester, question the RQs and data presented to you. Are there flaws? Other possible interpretations?
Pat hugs Sammy.
Sammy hugs Pat.
*Hugs Pat Sammy.
*Hugs Sammy Pat.
*Pat Sammy Hugs.
*Sammy Pat Hugs.
"Billy's favorite season is summer because Billy can play outside more. During the summer, Billy really enjoys playing ball and sometimes Billy rides his bike. Most of all, Billy likes not having to go to school."
A: So, tell me about your date last night!
B. Well, the food was good.
All of this is largely abstract and unconscious knowledge!
Do single-style speakers
(W&F p. 7) exist?
Is variation unbounded?
No, there are limits to variation which can be predicted and described. It is also the case that certain linguistic properties simply do not vary (e.g. The gray house vs. *The house gray.)
Most likely they do not. But, does this pose a problem for theoretical linguistics and the concept of 'categorical rules' given the two previous points? Are you bi/multilingual?
She quickly learned to conduct experiments.
She learned quickly to conduct experiments.
She learned to quickly conduct experiments.
She learned to conduct experiments quickly.
The apple bites the man.
Colorless green ideas sleep furiously. (Chomsky 1957)
What is it?
"linguistic construction of membership in one or more social groups or categories"
(Kroskrity 2000, p. 111)
"dynamically constructed aspects which emerge through discourse and social behavior"
(W&F 2015, p. 7)
It can change. Language is an indicator.
What groups do we belong to?
How can group membership affect our identity?
What do we
to belong to groups?
"the ability to control events in order to achieve one's aims" (Tollefson 2006, p. 46)
"the control someone has over the outcomes of others" (Myers-Scotton 2006, p. 199)
How are language and power intertwined?
"refers to the motivations which cause individuals to act together and feel a common bond which influences their social actions."
(W&F 2015, p. 9)
Consider: What can we do at WFU to increase solidarity among the various groups?
(1) Social structure influences linguistic structure and/or behavior
(2) Linguistic structure influences/determine social structure
(3) The influence is bidirectional.
(4) There is no relationship between the two.
(5) Too early to tell.
Throughout the course, we will delve deeper into the field of
sociolinguistics (and its subfields)
. For now, this distinction is sufficient.
(1) good research questions (RQs)
(2) the right data
What type of data is appropriate? What methodological design is appropriate?
Ch. 1 Introduction
What's the danger in this hypothesis?