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Syarifah Nur Hasni

on 28 September 2014

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Transcript of Instructional

Instructional Technology
BTS 1083

Importances to study how children grow, learn and change.
- An understanding of child development is essential (important) because it allows us to fully appreciate the cognitive (brain), emotional, physical, social, and educational growth that children go through from birth and into early adulthood.
(James Bruner)
-The enactive mode is action-based - the child manipulates objects directly.

-At the iconic (image-based) level - children are dealing with mental images of objects but not manipulating them directly.

-The symbolic mode of learning is language-based. In this instance, children manipulate symbols instead of objects or mental images.

Bruner's theory suggests it is efficacious when faced with new material to follow a progression from enactive to iconic to symbolic representation! This holds true even for adult learners

1- http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/childdevtheory.htm

2- http://www.gulfbend.org/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=7918&cn=28

3- http://azcca.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/Module-3-A-Theories-of-Child-Development-and-Developmentally-Appropriate-Practice.pdf

4- http://www.gtlcenter.org/sites/default/files/TeachingtheWholeChild.pdf

5- http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm

Child Development Theory
-Child development that occurs from birth to adulthood was largely ignored throughout much of history.
- Children were often viewed simply as small versions of adult and little attention was paid to the many advances in cognitive abilities, language usage, and physical growth that occur during childhood and adolescence.
- Some of the major theories of child development are known as grand theories. They attempt to describe every aspect of development, often using a stage approach.
- Others are known as mini-theories. They insteadfocus only on a fairly limited aspect of development, such as cognitive or social growth
d) Formal Operational (11 years and above) Stage 4

- The adolescent can reason in more abstract ways. Thoughts are more idealistic, logical and systematic.

c) Concrete Operational (7-11 years) Stage 3

- The child can reason logically about concrete objects and events and classify objects.
- Learns to use language and to represent objects by images and words .Thinking is still egocentric: has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others .
- Classifies objects by a single feature: e.g. groups together all the red blocks regardless of shape or all the square blocks regardless of colour
a) Sensorimotor (0-2 years) Stage 1

- The infant (baby) explores through direct sensory and motor contact. Putting objects into their mouth. Separation anxiety (worry) and object permanence develop during this stage
Piaget's theory of Cognitive development stages are :

. .

1) Cooperative Learning
2) Classroom Discussions

3) Teacher often use collaborative and/or authentic tasks that place students at the centre of learning process
3) Balanced Instructions
5) Academic Press and Expectations.
6) Responsibility and Choice

7) Teacher Language.
Common teaching practice
(Jean Piaget)
Jean Piaget (1896-1990), created a cognitive-developmental stage theory that described how children's ways of thinking developed as they interacted with the world around them. Infants and young children understand the world much differently than adults do, and as they play and explore, their mind learns how to think in ways that better fit with reality.
Piaget's Key Ideas
- an imbalance between what is understood and what is dealed. People naturally try to reduce such imbalances by using the stimuli that cause the disequilibrium and developing new schemes or adapting old ones until equilibrium is restored.
1) Disequilibrium
2) Assimilation
The process by which a person takes material into their mind from the environment, which may mean changing the evidence of their senses to make it fit.

3) Accommodation
The difference made to one's mind or concepts by the process of assimilation.
Note that assimilation and accommodation go together: you can't have one without the other.

Cooperative learning refers to a specific instructional task in which teachers have
students work together toward a collective goal. Teachers ask students to do more than group work; students are actively working with their peers around content in a meaningful way
Classroom discussions refers to conversations students and teachers have around content. During classroom discussions, teachers ask more open-ended questions and ask students to elaborate on their own thinking and on the thinking of their peers.
Balanced instruction refers to teachers using an appropriate balance between
active instruction and direct instruction, as well as the appropriate balance between individual and collaborative learning
Academic press refers to a teacher’s implementation of meaningful and challenging work, and academic expectations focus on the teacher’s belief that all students can
and will succeed.
Responsibility and choice refers to the degree to which teachers allow students to make responsible decisions about their work in their classroom. The teacher creates a classroom environment where democratic norms are put into place and where students provide meaningful input into the development of the norms and
procedures of the classroom as well as the academic content or how the academic content is learned
Teacher language refers to how the teachers talk to students. Teachers should encourage student effort and work, restating what the student did and what that student needs to do in order to improve. For example, teacher language should not be simply praise “You did a great job” but should encourage students “I see you worked hard on your math paper.”
b) Pre-operational (2-7 years) Stage 2
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