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Afghan History 1950 to present
Transcript of Afghan History 1950 to present
Coalition Forces: 3,112
Afghan United Front: 200
Taliban/Insurgent death total: No reliable estimate Coalition invasion death toll: Civilian Death toll: 14,700 Total deaths in both Soviet and Coalition Invasions: Afghan History 1950 to Present February 1951,
Point Four program (the U.S. policy of technical assistance and economic aid to underdeveloped countries) is introduced in Afghanistan, bringing significant foreign aid to the impoverished nation. A new Afghan ambassador, Ghulam Yahia Khan Tarzi, arrives in Moscow. On December 24 a protocol is signed at Kabul concerning trade between the U.S.S.R. and Afghanistan for 1954, according to which deliveries by both sides are to be increased. It is obvious that Soviet diplomacy has decided to support Afghanistan against Pakistan by fanning the Afghans' fear that their neighbor will grow stronger because of U.S. military assistance. U.S.S.R. offers millions of dollars in loans and development funds to the Afghan government, and starts building a powerful friendship between the two nations. 1959
Fist signs of Women's Rights laws about with the abolition of the veil and the Chadri (the shroud-like head-to-toe gown). Despite this being law, many Afghans ignore the ban. Women are still discouraged from receiving any education, kept out of the workplace, and treated as being subservient to men. The United States refuses to increase its economic aid contributions to Afghanistan. September 9, 1964
Democratic reforms in the new constitution include the guaranteeing of such individual liberties as the right of free trial in all criminal cases, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and the right to form political parties. Elections are completed, with women voting for the first time. Several unofficial parties run candidates with beliefs ranging from fundamentalist Islam to the extreme left. Turnout is very low, leading to the vocal predominance of Kabuli radicals. This first elected assembly meets on October 14; eleven days later dissident leftist students, dissatisfied with the newly appointed cabinet, disrupt the meetings and RIOTING ENSUES. Prime Minister Mohammad Yusuf resigns on October 29, 1965. April 28, 1978,
The Saur Revolution begins, and President Mohammed Daoud Khan and his family are killed in his home by soldiers loyal to Afghanistan's Communist party, the PDPA (People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan). Nur Muhammad Taraki, leader of the PDPA, becomes the leader of Afghanistan, along with the rest of the PDPA council. Poverty, inadequate aid funding, and inaction on women's rights continue to become major issues in Afghanistan, many Afghans in urban areas turn to Communist organizations to plan and develop a revolution. July 17th, 1973
Mohammad Daoud Khan seized power from his cousin (and brother-in-law) King Zahir and forms an Afghan 'Republic', instating himself as president. Once in power, the PDPA immediately established equality of the sexes, and made Women's rights at the core of their platform. they had one of the largest rates of female engagement in politics in the world, and all laws stopping women from receiving the same rights as men would were abolished. Many afghans in rural areas ignored the change in government, and did not engage in practicing the new laws demanding gender equality. The PDPA initiated further sweeping changes to Afghan society thought its rule. it pursued complete state atheism, and did all in its power to remove islamic teaching from all areas of afghan society, with little success, as many conservative afghans fought against these anti-theocratic policies. The PDPA made dramatic increases in social program spending, relying on aid from the soviet union. these programs did much to benefit urban afghans, and eradicated poverty in many major cities, but were not accessible to rural afghans, which made up the majority of afghanistan's population. Additionally, the pdpa initiated sweeping land reform laws that were severely resented by nearly all afghans, and lead to poverty for many rural farmers. The dependence upon and adherence to the Soviet Union by the PDPA government soon became apparent to the world. The American Embassy in Kabul cabled Washington announcing "what the British first, and later the Americans, tried to prevent for a hundred years has happened: the Russian Bear has moved south of the Hindu Kush." This has become one of the most famous diplomatic cables in human history. The PDPA imprisoned, tortured or murdered thousands of members of the traditional elite and the religious establishment to pursue the implementation of their pseudo-communist policies. Infighting between the two major factions of the PDPA (the Parcham and the ruling Khalqi) becomes a serious issue in the organization. Major uprisings in rural communities across the nation against the women's equality and atheist policies of the PDPA become nearly impossible for the government to control. In an effort to ward off the inevitable soviet intervention in Afghanistan, the U.S. spares no expense in funding Islamic terrorist organizations such as the Mujahideen and what would become the Taliban in northern Pakistan. December 24, 1979
The Soviet intervention of Afghanistan begins, with the fist of the Soviet 40th Army troops being deployed in the nation to defeat Islamic terrorist organizations and restore order to the PDPA government, in particular the Mujahideen. Thought the course of the soviet intervention, 15,000 soviet forces, 18,000 Afghan soldiers, 90,000 Mujahideen and 2,000,000 Afghan civilians were killed. The conflict did very little to quell dissent in the nation, and fundamentalist islam, and many were encouraged by the conflict to join the Mujahideen. In fact half of the Afghan military, 80,000 strong, either deserted or joined the rebels by the end of the conflict, showing that support for fundamentalist islam is much larger than for ideological communism. The final troop withdrawal started on May 15, 1988, and ended on February 15, 1989 under the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev. Due to the pointless and expensive nature of the war, the conflict in Afghanistan has sometimes been referred to as the Soviet Union's Vietnam War or the Bear Trap. Following the end of the soviet war in afghanistan, conflict and civil unrest in the nation only continue, with the frequency of terrorist attacks on government forces at one of its highest points in the nations history. 16 April 1992,
The last PDPA leader, Mohammad Najibullah, is forced into resignation with the threat of rising fundamentalist islam reaching its highest point in Afghanistan's history as a result of decades of communist rule. As a result, the next stage of war in Afghanistan begins, a civil war between the traditional Afghanistan government, and the Taliban and Hezb-i Islami rebels, who were originally trained and equipped by the United States to combat the Soviet Union and the PDPA. Shortly after Najibullah's resignation, the The post-communist Islamic State of Afghanistan was established by the Peshawar Accord. Much of the civil infrastructure was ruined in Kabul due to the civil unrest. Hezb-i Islami is recorded as conducting the worst and major part of the shelling. On September 26, 1996, as the Taliban, with military support by Pakistan and financial support by Saudi Arabia, prepared for another major offensive, a full retreat from Kabul was ordered by government forces. The Taliban seized Kabul on September 27, 1996, and established the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. September 27, 1996
The Taliban seize control of the capital of Kabul and form a new nation, the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. Consequently, they became in control of Afghanistan's government, despite this, the vast majority of the nation-states did not recognize the existence of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, and instead recognized the now nearly completely dissolved Islamic State of Afghanistan as having jurisdiction in the region. The only nation-states to recognize the new Taliban rule were its primary financial backers, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and the UAE. A civil war in the nation ensues between the two governing bodies vying for control of Afghanistan. With the Islamic State of Afghanistan's defense minister and national war hero Ahmad Shah Massoud at the helm of forming the United Front, a force in opposition to the Taliban. Despite the efforts of the old regime to regain governance, the Taliban had out maneuvered, out supplied and out manned the United Front at every turn, and they remained in relative control of the nation until the impending coalition invasion. During the conflict, the Taliban received complementary military support by Pakistan and financial support by Saudi Arabia. Pakistan interfered militarily in Afghanistan, deploying battalions and regiments of its Frontier Corps and Army against the United Front. Al Qaeda supported the Taliban with regiments of imported fighters from Arab countries and Central Asia. In the late period of the war, of an estimated 45,000 force fighting on the side of the Taliban only 14,000 were Afghan. September 9th 2001,
Ahmad Shah Massoud is killed in a suicide bombing enacted by al-Qaeda, and all seems lost for the old governing body of the Islamic State of Afghanistan. For the first time in nearly a decade, a stable government is formed by the Talian and conflict is relatively subsided subsided September 11th, 2001
The World Trade Center suicide attacks occur, perpetuated primarily by al-Qaeda, and commanded and carried out almost entirely by Saudi al-Qaeda operators. Despite this, many western leaders, particularly the President of the United States was feeling immense political pressure to respond to this terrible act of violence. The response is unusual and unexpected, a full scale invasion of the nation of Iraq, which has for centuries operated as one of the most ruthlessly anti-militant nations in the Middle East, which, before its invasion, was engaged in multiple military operations against al-Qaeda. October 7th, 2001
Operation Enduring Freedom begins, and Afghanistan is invaded by Coalition forces, including the U.S. and Britain, later to be joined by Canada among other nations. This date marks the beginning of western intervention in the nation-state. The goals of the operation were to oust the Taliban and create a system of democratic representation in the nation. The operation was initially supposed to be resolved quite briefly, but it took many years before the operation was met with any amount of success. As coalition forces invaded an interesting trend in the Afghan economy occurred, within a year of the US Alliance invasion the Afghan opium production skyrocketed from 6% of world production in 2001, to 74% in 2002, 93% in 2006, 95% in 2007 and 94% in 2008, with the global supply of opium increasing significantly each year. The bloody conflict continues to this day, as a result of the occupation, acts of terror and enlistment in the Taliban army dramatically increased, and suicide bombings and attacks on the general populous of Afghanistan reached some of its highest points in the nations history. December 7th, 2004
Hamid Karzai was formally sworn in as president of a democratic Afghanistan, and general stability in the nation increases slowly, with the odds tipping slightly in Coalition forces favor. Present Day,
The coalition intervention of Afghanistan continues, although it is coming to a close. Canada and the United States have ended their combat roles in the nation, and now have changed the focus of their operation on the training of Afghan security forces to resolve the remaining Taliban threat internally. 2,151,694+