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The Protestant Reformation

5.3, 5.4
by

Stephanie Walden

on 26 August 2016

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Transcript of The Protestant Reformation

The Protestant Reformation
Today we are learning about:
Problems in the Church and the reformers who pointed them out
A monk named Martin Luther
Luther's beef with the Church
The religious fallout from Luther's theology
The social and political ramifications of Luther's theology
Root words:
Protest -(n) an expression or declaration of objection, disapproval, or dissent, often in opposition to something a person is powerless to prevent or avoid.

Reform - (n) the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactory, etc.
To change
What were they protesting & why was there call for reform?
The Church's prestige took major hits during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

As a result of crises like the bubonic plague, famine, and warfare in the Middle Ages, many Europeans became jaded and turned away from the Church.

Renaissance Europeans became more concerned with temporal and material things than with matters of religion, the supernatural, and the afterlife.
The Church was losing souls at a record pace. Those still devoted believed the Church needed to respond with compassion and concern. They believed the Church was to be a beacon of piety that EU needed.
What many found was corruption- greed for wealth, property, and political power. Those who spoke and wrote against the shortcomings of the Church and clergy found that the hierarchy of the Church had little or no interest in hearing what the reformers had to say.
Except in a few cases, reformers rarely disagreed w/ Church doctrine. Instead they argued that the leaders of the church lost their focus or way and jobs were not being done correctly.
In the eyes of the Church, these "reformers" were heretics.
A heretic is one who is guilty of going against official church teachings. The punishments for heretics ranged from excommunication to imprisonment to death.
Christian Humanism
Emphasis on early Church writings that provided answers on how to improve society and reform the Church
Less emphasis on pagan works from ancient Greece and Rome
Drew on Hebrew and Greek texts of the Bible and the writings of the Church Fathers.
Emphasized education and power of human intellect to bring about institutional change and moral improvement.
Writings led to criticism of the church thus leading to the Reformation
THE
PROTESTANT
REFORMATION
Protestantism spreading rapidly through Eur
Church sees need to reform
Raises the standards of the clergy
Inspired the Church with a renewed zeal and morale
Contributed significantly to producing the Catholic Church as we know it today.
Pillars of Catholic Reformation
1. Reform of Papacy
2. Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
3. Council of Trent
The Catholic Reformation
The Pope refused to grant the annulment, too political (King of Eng vs. HRE Emperor)
After a long argument, Henry decided to break from Catholic Church
Archbishop of Canterbury granted divorce
Act of Supremacy(1534) est Church of Eng
King control over doctrine, appointments, etc
Dissolves Cath claims, sells land & possessions
Remained close to Cath teachings
Reformation in England (cont)
Followers of Luther’s religious practices
Gained support of many German princes
1524, German peasants revolted & hoped Luther would support them, because Luther needed the princes’ support, he did not help the peasants
Germany in turmoil – Catholic? Lutheran?
To achieve peace HRE Emperor Charles V accepted the Peace of Augsburg (allowed Ger princes to choose the faith of their region)
Lutheranism
Scan graphic?
In Praise of Folly - by Erasmus
Best-seller (only the Bible sold more by 1550)
Erasmus was a devout Catholic who sought to reform the Church, not destroy it
Criticized immorality and hypocrisy of Church leaders and the clergy
The book inspired renewed calls for reform, and influenced Martin Luther
Calls to Reform the Church
Met over 18 year period (1545-63)
Reaffirmed Catholic teaching
Including 7 sacraments
Maintained salvation was gained through faith and good works
More strict rules for clergy
Incl more education for priests
Each diocese established a seminary
Banned indulgences!!
Council of Trent
By 1521 Luther moving toward spilt from Church
Wanted Ger princes to overthrow Papal power in Germany & est a German Church
By Jan 1521 – Luther excommunicated
Summoned by Imperial Diet of HRE to Worms
Called by Emperor Charles V,
wanted Luther to change his
ideas, Luther – “NO”
Edict of Worms issued, making
Luther an outlaw
Luther kept in hiding by
his prince
The Reformation Begins
Most significant agency of Catholic reform
Founded by Ignatius of Loyola
Spanish soldier
Injured in battle
Had a conversion during recovery, dedicated himself to the Church
The Jesuits
1547 – Henry died
His 9 year old son, Edward VI, took the throne
The Church of England- aka Anglican Church
Became more Protestant
Angering Catholics
1553 – Edward dies
His half-sister Mary (Catholic) takes throne
She wants to restore Catholicism
“Bloody Mary” has 300+ Prot burned as heretics
Increases tensions btw Cath & Prot
The Church of England
Henry was desperate for a son. So much so he married 6 times!!
The saying goes…
Divorced, Beheaded, Died
Divorced, Beheaded, Survived
Horrible Histories
Henry & his wives
Political, not religious motives for reform
Henry VIII – King of England
Needs a male heir to carry on
the Tudor Dynasty
Married Catherine of Aragon
(Aunt of Charles V,HRE Emperor)
Have a daughter, Mary
No son, so Henry wants a divorce!
In the Catholic Church, you
need an annulment, granted by the
Church. The Pope grants it for a King.
Reformation in England
John Calvin replaces Zwingli (killed in rel war)
French, fled for safety to Switzerland
1536 – began reforming Geneva, Switz.
Created a church govt of elect & laity
Used consistory (moral police)
Sent missionaries thru Eur to convert Cath.
Ideas spread  FR, Neth, Scot…
Mid 16th C – Calvinism more pop than Lutheranism
Protestantism Spreads - Calvin
Ulrich Zwingli – priest in Zurich, Switzerland
Zwinglian Reformation
Banned all religious relics & images
Whitewashed all church interiors
No music in church services
Does note merge w/Luther b/c
can’t agree with the meaning
of communion
Protestantism Spreads - Zwingli
By 1521 Luther moving toward spilt from Church
Wanted Ger princes to overthrow Papal power in Germany & est a German Church
By Jan 1521 – Luther excommunicated
Summoned by Imperial Diet of HRE to Worms
Called by Emperor Charles V,
wanted Luther to change his
ideas, Luther – “NO”
Edict of Worms issued, making
Luther an outlaw
Luther kept in hiding by
his prince
The Reformation Begins
Prior to the Reformation all Christians were Roman Catholic
The [REFORM]ation was an attempt to REFORM the Catholic Church
People like Martin Luther wanted to get rid of the corruption and restore the people’s faith in the church
In the end the reformers, like Luther, established their own religions
The Reformation caused a split in Christianity with the formation of these new Protestant religions
What was the Protestant Reformation?
Popes corrupted by power & lose focus of spiritual leadership
Scientific advances contradicted the Church
People wanted to know how to save souls
Indulgences –a release of a
soul from purgatory for
monetary donation –
a HUGE abuse of
Church power!
Why reform?
Religious reforms dividing western Christianity
Roman Catholic Church criticized for abuse of power and corruption
Christian Humanists–wanted to reform Church
Believed through reason, and studying the classics one could become more pious(Christ-like)
Desiderius Erasmus–father of Christian Humanism
Suggested reforming from within the Church
THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION
Church’s way to suppress heresy
Infamous for its cruelty
Followed strictly in Spain, Portugal and Rome
Some countries, like France, refused
The Inquisition
Missionaries
Convert former and non-Catholics
Urged the religious education of children
Devoted to religious and secular education
Secondary schools
Colleges/Universities
Seminaries
Role of Jesuits
Corruption had to be addressed
Pope Paul II led papal reform
Oversaw the creation of the Jesuit order
Opened the Council of Trent
Revived the Inquisition
The Papacy
German Priest
Saw problems in the Church
Church believed salvation gained
from faith + good work
Luther thought faith alone gained salvation
Oct 31, 1517 – Posted 95 Theses on church door in Wittenburg, Ger
His criticisms of Church
1000s of copies distributed through
Germany
MARTIN LUTHER
Desiderius
Erasmus
Erasmus was a Dutch scholar, humanist, and theologian.
Erasmus was ordained a Catholic priest, but never practiced priestly duties.
Instead, he studied theology and classical Greek at the universities of Paris and Cambridge.
Erasmus was critical of some of the practices and doctrines of the Catholic Church.
Erasmus sought to reform the Catholic Church.
Desiderius Erasmus
Desiderius
Erasmus
Most famous and celebrated of all Christian humanists
Father of Christian Humanism
Master of the Greek language; one of Europe’s foremost authorities
Made new translations of the Greek and Latin versions of the New Testament to create “purer” editions.
Erasmus
In Praise of Folly - by Erasmus
Best-seller (only the Bible sold more by 1550)
Erasmus was a devout Catholic who sought to reform the Church, not destroy it
Criticized immorality and hypocrisy of Church leaders and the clergy
The book inspired renewed calls for reform, and influenced Martin Luther
Calls to Reform the Church
The essay is filled with classical allusions delivered in a style typical of the learned humanists of the Renaissance. Folly parades as a goddess, offspring of Plutus, the god of wealth and a nymph, Freshness. She was nursed by two other nymphs Inebriation and Ignorance, her faithful companions include Philautia (self-love), Kolakia (flattery), Lethe (oblivion), Misoponia (laziness), Hedone (pleasure), Anoia (madness), Tryphe (wantonness) and two gods Komos (intemperance) and Eegretos Hypnos (dead sleep). Folly praises herself endlessly, arguing that life would be dull and distasteful without her. Of earthly existence, Folly pompously states, "you'll find nothing frolic or fortunate that it owes not to me."
Popes corrupted by power & lose focus of spiritual leadership
People wanted to know how to save souls
Indulgences –a release of a
soul from purgatory for
monetary donation –
a HUGE abuse of
Church power!
Why reform?
German Priest
Saw problems in the Church
Church believed salvation gained
from faith + good work
Luther thought faith alone gained salvation
Oct 31, 1517 – Posted 95 Theses on church door in Wittenburg, Ger
His criticisms of Church
1000s of copies distributed throughout
Germany
MARTIN LUTHER
Luther Bio...

born into a well-to-do family
promised his father he would be a lawyer
really wanted to be a musician
played the lute
made a promise God during a thunderstorm
became a monk
Vengeful, wrath-of-God religious upbringing
practiced flagellation- physically hitting himself to punish his flesh for sinning.
He believed that man couldn't do enough to save himself in God's eyes.
Visited Rome to find the answer
disgusted with materialism & corruption of the Church
By 1521 Luther moving toward split from Church
Wanted Ger princes to overthrow Papal power in Germany & est a German Church
By Jan 1521 – Luther excommunicated
Summoned by Imperial Diet of HRE to Worms
Called by Emperor Charles V,
wanted Luther to change his
ideas, Luther – “NO”
Edict of Worms issued, making
Luther an outlaw
Luther kept in hiding by
his prince
The Reformation Really Begins
Imperial Diet???
means the highest representative assembly in an empire
Followers of Luther’s religious practices
Gained support of many German princes
1524, German peasants revolted & hoped Luther would support them, because Luther needed the princes’ support, he did not help the peasants
Germany in turmoil – Catholic? Lutheran?
To achieve peace HRE Emperor Charles V accepted the Peace of Augsburg (allowed Ger princes to choose the faith of their region)
Lutheranism
Ulrich Zwingli – priest in Zurich, Switzerland
Zwinglian Reformation
Banned all religious relics & images
Whitewashed all church interiors
No music in church services
Does note merge w/Luther b/c
can’t agree with the meaning
of communion (Lord's Supper)
Protestantism Spreads - Zwingli
John Calvin replaces Zwingli (killed in rel war)
French, fled for safety to Switzerland
Believed in predestination
God knows who is going where before birth
1536 – began reforming Geneva, Switz.
Created a church govt of elect & laity
Used consistory (moral police)
Sent missionaries thru Eur to convert Cath.
Ideas spread  FR, Neth, Scot…
Mid 16th C – Calvinism more pop than Lutheranism
Protestantism Spreads - Calvin
Political, not religious motives for reform
Henry VIII – King of England
Needs a male heir to carry on
the Tudor Dynasty
Married Catherine of Aragon
(Aunt of Charles V,HRE Emperor)
Have a daughter, Mary
No son, so Henry wants a divorce!
In the Catholic Church, you
need an annulment, granted by the
Church. The Pope grants it for a King.
Reformation in England
Today we learned about the development of the Protestant Reformation
Click-it out the door

Before you leave class answer the following questions using your clicker:

1. Goes against official Church teachings
2. To change
3. released a soul from purgatory
4. Father of Christian Humanism
5. Edict of Worms declared him an outlaw
a. Reform
b. indulgences
c. Martin Luther
d. Zwingli
e. Erasmus
f. heretic
g. protest
Luther v. Zwingli

Luther: Consubstantiation
Zwingli: bread & wine of the Lord's Super merely symbolized the body & blood of Christ.
FYI:

Johan Tetzel -indulgence salesman for Pope Leo X in GER
The Pope refused to grant the annulment, too political (King of Eng vs. HRE Emperor)
After a long argument, Henry decided to break from Catholic Church
Archbishop of Canterbury granted divorce
Act of Supremacy(1534) est Church of Eng
King control over doctrine, appointments, etc
Dissolves Cath claims, sells land & possessions
Remained close to Cath teachings
Reformation in England (cont)
Henry was desperate for a son. So much so he married 6 times!!
The saying goes…

Divorced, Beheaded, Died, Divorced, Beheaded, Survived
Henry & his wives
The Church of England
Still Confused...
Separate selves from other Protestants
Adult baptism
Dislike govt interference
Refuse political office, bear arms (pacifists)
See all people as equal
Viewed as extremely radical
Modern descendents
Amish, Mennonites, German Baptists
The Anabaptists
The Church of England- aka Anglican Church
1547 – Henry died
His 9 year old son, Edward VI, took the throne
Became more Protestant
Angering Catholics
1553 – Edward dies
Mary Tudor (1553-1558)
Daughter of Henry & Catherine of Aragon
Wants to restore Catholicism to ENG

"Bloody Mary" - had 300+ Protestants
burned as heretics
*Increases tensions btw Cath & Prot.
Lady Jane Grey
"The Nine Days Queen"
great-granddaughter of Henry VII
When the 15-year-old King lay dying in June 1553, he nominated Jane as successor to the Crown in his will, thus subverting the claims of his half-sisters Mary and Elizabeth under the Third Succession Act. During her short reign, Jane resided in the Tower of London. She became a prisoner there when the Privy Council decided to change sides and proclaim Mary as Queen on 19 July 1553. She was convicted of high treason in November 1553, though her life was initially spared. Wyatt's rebellion in January and February 1554 against Queen Mary's plans of a Spanish match led to her execution at the age of 16 or 17, and that of her husband
Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
The "Virgin Queen"
Daughter of Henry & Anne Boleyn

Strong Protestant views

Never married, used possibility of marriage for politics
Protestantism spreading rapidly through Eur
Church sees need to reform
Pillars of Catholic Reformation
1. Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
Ignatius of Loyola, began missions to restore Church
2. Reform of Papacy – started by Pope Paul III
3. Council of Trent – met off & on for 18 years
Reaffirmed traditional Cath beliefs
Incl the 7 sacraments & faith and good works
Banned selling indulgences!
The Catholic Reformation
(The Counter Reformation)
_____________ was the HRE that tried to get Martin Luther to recant
He’s the Father of Christian Humanism (made a purer version of the New Test.)
____________ is credited for starting the Reformation.
_________created the Church of Eng – Why?
Wrap up review!
________ white washed churches
_______ replaced Zwingli
________ wanted ENG Catholic
________ King at 9
_________Used the consistory
Bloody __________
_________Believed in predestination
More wrap up and review
Full transcript