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Cultural Changes and Continuities

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Ashley Leyba

on 28 April 2016

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Transcript of Cultural Changes and Continuities

Religion, Art, and Architecture
Cultural Changes and Continuities
Beginnings-500 BCE
Second AgRev
Christianity spread as a result of conquest/colonization
Industrial Revolution altered world culture
Creates new middle class with leisure time
Concept of time
Zhou, Qin, Han
Participation in the Silk Roads allows Chinese culture to flourish and spread.
River Valley Civilizations
Qin establishes something of a Chinese Identity
Great Wall built under Shi Huangdi
T Minus Two Weeks!
Hunter-gatherer societies for much of period
Animistic Beliefs
Tended to reflect nature
Often portable
Goddess worship
Connection to fertility
Importance of nature
Art and Literature connected to gods
Monumental Architecture
Epic Poetry
Classical Civilizations
500 BCE-500 CE
More interaction
This is NOT Sparta!
Athens is the center of Greek culture
Polytheistic (though we will see Greek rationalism)
Greek seafarers (means culture spreads!)
Alex the Great
Biggest long-term impact was spread of Hellenistic culture
Borrow A LOT from Greece (Art, literature, philosophy, science, etc)
Amazing engineers (esp. roads)
Used same basic structure in all major cities
Developed later in the Roman Empire and influenced the empire at every level
Became the official religion, but the empire was too far gone to be unified by it, or to avoid collapse

Confucianism, Legalism, Daoism emerge in classical period
Buddhism exists, but not yet in China
Classical India
Importance of Vedas
Hinduism is the dominant religion
Buddhism has begun to take hold in various levels of society
Ashoka, of the Mauryan Empire, converted to Buddhism
Gupta Empire was predominantly Hindu
Major Literature: Maharabata
Connected to Silk Roads and Indian Ocean Trade Routes

World Religions in 90 Seconds!
Post-Classical Era
500-1500 CE
Lots o' Cultural Diffusion (seeing a pattern?)
Religions covered HUGE amounts of land, but still see small, localized religions
As religions grow in size, they become an important part of a state's political structure
Islamic Empire(s)
People of the Book= tolerant of religions of Christianity and Judaism
Patriarchal System
Adapted to the cultural heritage of the areas they conquered.
Persian, Abbasid Empire, became the language of literature, poetry, history, and political theory.

Eastern and Western Europe
Schism in 1054
Byzantine inherit a lot from Rome and Greece
West: Crusades (cultural diffusion)
The Mongols are the Exception!!
No surprise there...
Mongols are illiterate, religiously tolerant
Culture developed on horseback
Gradually incorporated conquered cultures
Many became Buddhist or Muslim
Tang and Song Dynasties
Grand Canal system
Complex roads
Influenced surrounding areas
Buddhism became popular in the Tang dynasty
Development of Neo-Confucianism
Early Modern Era, 1450-1750
Nomads continue to be important, but water-based trade on the rise
Neo-Confucianism continues to grow in China
Christianity grows with missionaries (Jesuits take religion global)
Maya, Aztec, Inca
All built large, ceremonial cities
Aztec and Maya practiced human sacrifice
Aztecs and Maya had complex writing and calendars
Incas had accounting, but no writing

The Renaissance
Stimulated by trade
Begins in Italian city-states
Medicis and pope as patrons

Challenges to Roman Catholicism
Protestant Reformation
Martin Luther, 1517
Three solas
Abuses within church
Begins centuries of religious warfare within western Europe
Impacts colonialism
Ottoman Threat
Seize Constantinople in 1453
Blend Islamic and Byzantine architectural styles
Create relatively tolerant empire
Mughal India
Akbar v. Aurangzeb on religious toleration
Muslim rulers of Hindu majority
Sikhism as blended religion (syncretic)
Taj Mahal
Peter the Great tries to westernize Russia
Builds St. Petersburg
No religious tolerance of anything besides Russian Orthodoxy
Spread of science and consumer culture
Increased isolation in some cases (reaction against outside influences)
Multinational corporations influence culture
Movements: Green movement, civil rights movement, women's movement
Full transcript