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Political Revolutions (1700-1900s) AP

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Saadia Hussain

on 20 January 2017

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Transcript of Political Revolutions (1700-1900s) AP

1900
1600
Political Revolutions (1700-1800s)
Enlightenment
Absolutism v. Constitutionalism
American Revolution
1775-1783
French Revolution (1789-1799)
Haitian Revolution
First free black republic
Latin American Revolutions
Revolutions Aftermath
"Revolutionary?"
Absolutism - complete power
Constitutionalism - sharing power with a legislative body
France
Highly structured and efficient bureaucracy to fund armies & king's extravagant lifestyle
Divine right - kings rule by God's permission
Strong military to instigate constant war to bolster power
No parliament: Dissolved the Estates-General
England
Magna Carta
1215
Barons (landowners) forced the king to sign document
King could only raise taxes with the barons' permission
For the first time, there was a check on the king's power
You may have these taxes now
Ok.
1. King is not allowed to make new laws
2. Parliament makes taxes
3. Parliament is allowed to have free elections
4. Free speech in Parliament
5. No army without Parliament's permission
6. People can petition without fear of being punished
Parliament
Shares power with the king
Make laws
Levy taxes
Control army
Glorious Revolution
Charles II - Spends too much money
James II - becomes Catholic
Protestants William & Mary placed on throne BUT had to sign to English Bill of Rights
English Bill of Rights
Restored Parliament's power over the king by giving them control of taxation
English Civil War
Charles I - dissolves Parliament
Natural Law - you are born with rights that no can take away from you
1650-1800
Used reason and science to understand and fix social and political problems
Ideological Revolution
Started in France
Influenced the democratic revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries (government of the people)
Why is the Enlightenment important?
John Locke
The government should protect people's natural rights:
life, liberty, & property
Montesquieu
A
government's power should be separated
to keep it from getting too powerful
Voltaire
People have the right to
freedom of religion and speech
Rousseau
Social Contract
: people give up certain rights to gain protection from government
"Salons"
Thinkers and Ideas
People can rebel against a governmen
t that does not protect their rights
Did the revolution really create a new form of government in the US?
Was the American Revolution "revolutionary"?
Revolutionary in Thought
Citizenship
Inherent equality
Enlightenment
Causes of the Revolution
Timeline
http://www.history.com/topics/french-revolution
May 5, 1789
June 17, 1789
June 27, 1789
July 14, 1789
August 4, 1789
September 3, 1791
April 1792
August 10, 1792
January 21, 1793
June 1793
July 28, 1794
August 22, 1795
November 9, 1799
1st - 1 Vote
3rd - 1 Vote
2nd - 1 Vote
This is unfair!
We suck.
(3) Everyone else
American Revolution showed that a successful democracy is possible
King Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette
Absolutism
Enlightenment ideas popular among the bourgeoisie
Rousseau
Voltaire
Montesquieu
People in the government
Freedom of speech and religion
Separation of power
French society was broken into three groups called "estates"
(1) Clergy
1% of population
Owned most of the land
Didn't have to pay taxes
(2) Nobles
2% of population
Really really rich
Didn't have to pay taxes
(3) Everyone else
10% Well off people (bourgeoisie)
90% Really poor peasants
Had to pay taxes
With the debt from the King's spending & wars the 3rd Estate had to pay taxes they couldn't afford
Estates-General: "legislative" body
Causes
Napoleon
Debt!
Too many wars
Interest
Government function
Royal family
Military spending
No banking system
No paper currency
No credit
You have
20 minutes!!
We're awesome
Hungry peasants get mad
Modeled after the American and the French Revolutions (Enlightenment)
Napoleon helps!
Toussaint L'Ouverture
Casta system
Creoles - educated in the Enlightenment & wanted political power
Social structure stays the same
Gran Colombia - Northern part of South America
Brazil & Mexico - monarchy
Tax -Quinto (1/5 of wealth)
Napoleon - invasion and control of Spain and Portugal
White landowners still in charge
Equality does not include women and blacks
Feudalism abolished in France BUT not in Latin America
1803-1825
Napoleonic Wars - series of wars in which Napoleon conquered most of Europe
Napoleon in Charge
I will defeat everyone and take over the world!
Napoleonic Code
Got rid of hereditary privileges
Freedom of religion
Established a judicial system
Officially got rid of feudalism
Established the Bank of France
Bank
Other European countries hated France because they did not want France's ideas started new revolutions.
Austria
Prussia
Russia
Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia declared war on Napoleon in 1803
France sucks!
Fierce!
1804 - named himself emperor of France making France a monarchy again
1800-1815
The revolution + Napoleon's wars keep France too busy to control colonies
Sugar plantation --> large slave population
1791-1804
BUT...!!
Economic destruction
Mass killing of white landowners
Ex-slaves lacked education to govern
Racial division
Peninsulares - Spain born Europeans
Creoles - Colony born Europeans
Mestizos - European + Native
Mulattos - European + Black
Natives/Slaves
Causes
Aftermaths
Republic of Gran Colombia created
Later fell apart because of regional fighting
Most countries became dictatorships
Examples
Full transcript