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The Middle Ages Timeline
Transcript of The Middle Ages Timeline
The Middle Ages Timeline
Fall of Rome
In 476 C.E. warriors and barbarians attacked the Western Roman Empire which was ruled by Rome. The Eastern Roman Empire remained in power for another 1000 years. This ended 800 years of glory for Rome.
Why did the Empire fall apart?
Empire grew too large to govern properly
Romans no longer wanted to serve the army
Civil wars broke out in Rome between different factions
Rich grew disinterested in helping Rome and wanted more for themselves
Population of Rome shrank
Trade decreased while taxes and prices increased
The poor were overtaxed
Known as one of the most illuminating figures of the dark ages, Charlemagne
brought back law and order, provided education to all - even women, never lost a military conflict, ordered better conditions for peasants, and ruled the largest single kingdom in Europe.
When Charlemagne went to aid Pope Leo III with the difficulties of the rebellion, he was crowned King of England. During the
Bloody Verdict of Verdun
, Charlemagne thought that he would save souls if he converted them to Christianity, however 4000 Saxons were killed in one day when their leaders refused to convert to Christianity.
During the Viking ages, the Vikings spread through Europe and the North Atlantic, and conquered many territories. The Vikings lived in Scandinavia (Sweden, Denmark, Norway), and the Vikings first raided Lindisfarne, England. Arriving on intimidating long ships,
the Vikings burned buildings and beautiful architecture, stole treasures, murdered monks, and terrified the townspeople.
Many people believed that the Vikings were sent by God to punish the people in England.
In 1095, Pope Urban II called for a holy war against the Muslim Turks who controlled the Holy Land. There were 8 Crusades in total over 200 years, however the last 7 failed due to:
The Magna Carta
On June 15, 1215, a group of English noblemen (barons) forced King John to sign a charter, called the Magna Carta, which listed everything that the King could do and couldn't do. It limited the King's powers of taxation and required trials by jury. For the first time, someone had set a limit on the power of Kings. The Magna Carta became the basis for English citizen's rights.
The Black Death
The Black Death (also known as the bubonic plague) was a disease spread by fly's living on rats that traveled from China to Europe on merchant ships. This disease took 1/3 of Europe's population (about 54 million people), and the sick usually died within 3-5 days. Symptoms of this disease include fever, coughing blood, boils, lung problems, and lumps of the skin. Because so many people died, the church had to burn the bodies, instead of burying them.
Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc was a 17 year old French peasant who led the French to victory in the battle of Orleans, after being told by Saints from God. Joan's primary weapon was the cannon, which helped defeat the English in the battle of Orleans. The cannon blew down castles, and killed many of the English army. Although Joan of Arc was eventually killed, she influenced the French army to keep fighting, and soon they were able to get the English out of France.
742 - 814 A.D.
1347 - 1350 A.D.
1412 - 1431 A.D.
1095 - 1291 A.D.
Did you know?
Many poor people were glad to see Rome fall. They were starving to death while being heavily taxed by Rome.
Bathing during the Black Death was discouraged for two reasons. The first one being that it was a sign of vanity (excessive pride), which invited the wrath of God and punishment of sin. The second one being that bathing was believed to open pores, making it easier for the plague and bad air to enter your body.
Pope Urban II said that if you died fighting in a Crusade, you would go to Heaven and all your sins would be erased.
Although there was fighting, the whole time wasn't just spent on that. The Muslims and Christians often found themselves trading goods with one another. The Christians found the Middle East to be way more advanced in
technology, medicines, food products, education, and inventions.
Food products like
Household goods like
The Crusades had a large impact on building castles. Edward I was in a Crusade, and built many large castles in Wales. It is thought that he learned about castle improvements as a result of his experience.
Most of Europe believed that God was giving
mankind a punishment for all their sins.
Did you know?
The famous "bob" haircut actually originated from Joan of Arc in 1909. When Joan dressed as a boy, she cut all her long hair off, and wore it in the "pageboy" style common among the knights of her era. One of Paris' most famous hairdressers, Monsieur Antoine, began cutting his clients hair in this way, using Joan of Arc as his inspiration.
After raiding England, the Vikings made their way to the
Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Italy and even to parts of Scotland and Ireland.
About 500 years before Christopher Columbus discovered America, the Vikings had already been on the shores of what is now Canada around 1000 A.D.
It is amazing to believe how much different today's society would be if we could go back in time and change an event completely. If we could somehow decline Joan of Arc's request to drive the English out of France, the English would have most likely taken over France, they would not have traveled to America, and there would be no such thing as Quebec in Canada. First of all, Joan of Arc was the one who inspired the French to keep fighting. As a result, the French were able to get the English out of France, even after Joan was burned on the stake. If Joan of Arc did not lead the French to victory, the English would have without a doubt captured all of France. At the time, the English had better weapons, were smarter, and attacked with many troops. Imagine this: there would be no such thing as the the country we call France! Likewise, if the English were satisfied with the capture of their new country, they would most likely not have traveled overseas to increase their territory and trade. If the English had not conquered America first, the country we live in would probably speak a whole different language! In addition, there would be no such thing as Quebec in Canada. Because the French would have been killed during the 100 years war, they would not have conquered any part of Canada. Ultimately, Quebec would not have a different language spoken there. Indeed we as a society do not think about the effect an event would have on us whether it was altered, or just simply did not happen in the first place. As aforementioned, the life we live in to this day would be a whole lot different if an event was changed.