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Chicago Freedom Movement
Transcript of Chicago Freedom Movement
The spark for the Chicago Freedom Movement was created in the summer of 1965 when King and the SCLC were invited to the city by the Coordinating Council of Community Organizations (CCCO). Here, King speaks to a crowd near the Robert Taylor and Stateway Gardens public housing projects during that visit.
African Americans worked really hard. Most worked in garbage collection and street cleaning. There were no health inspection in these places to see if the worker's are in a healthy environment. After many strikes and protests, the CCCO and SCLC decided to nail their demands to the door of city hall. The demands stated the each worker must be getting a minimum wage of $2.00 per hour. Even Operation Breadbasket helped open 200 new job opportunities for many African Americans.
The Chicago Freedom Movement's main goal was to stop housing discrimination. The SCLC and CCCO decided to march on City Hall to demand open housing. Martin Luther King Jr. , leader of the CFM, wanted an agreement in which if a African American wanted to buy a house they would be able to choose the house they wanted and not let the person selling the house choose it for them just because of their race, color, or religion. In late August, Richard Daley decided to meet with Martin Luther King Jr. and various boards to negotiate. A Summit Agreement was announced in the Housing Authority promised Public Housing.
May schools that Blacks were going or able to go were way overcrowded, this was all due to housing segregation. In a segregated Chicago school, the school held up to 40-50 students that were crowded into one single room. Many teachers because of the crowded classrooms left at the first opportunity. Teachers rebelled at the learning conditions, knowing that each student needed individual attention. Civil Rights Activist Al Raby and Martin Luther King Jr. decided to protest against the School Board. African Americans tried everything against school inequality through many strikes and protests. The CCCO demanded for equality in schools. The CCCO also wanted equal budgeting in white and black schools. They also demanded integrated schools to end the overcrowding in black schools. The fight was long and hard, but it was accomplished.
The CFM impacted the decade's Civil Rights and was one of the most significant campaign during that era. Many diverse groups were joining to put an end to segregation in the North. Sparks started to fly when Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. and Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) were called by the Coordinating Council of Community Organizations (CCCO) to tour Chicago and see for themselves the segregation happening in the Northern City. In the summer of 1965 the SCLC and CCCO marched together on Chicago's City Hall, making demands for a city more open to African Americans. In September of 1965, both SCLC and CCCO began the Chicago Freedom Movement. A campaign to stop segregation in Chicago.
Chicago Freedom Movement
By: Michelle Mayancela
Rights & Responsibilities
The rights the CFM was fighting for was civil rights. There were many responsibilities. A responsibility the CFM was they were fighting for equality and the rights they deserve. Also they were fighting so that African Americans weren't segregated.
As you can see the Chicago Freedom Movement may have not completed everything they wanted, but it wasn't a failure. The non-violent protests helped emphasize the needs that all African Americans needed. There were three things I thought the CFM strongly helped, they were housing, education, and employment. The Chicago Freedom Movement not only change the way we live forever, but it also highlighted important problems that the movement brought to the cities in the North. The Summer Campaign of the CFM in 1965 has showed that freedom is a constant struggle.
The march ended when the list of demands was nailed to the door of Chicago's City Hall. The demands were far reaching and included having real estate brokers make all listings public and banks make public statements of non-discriminatory mortgage policies. The city was to release a head count of all blacks, whites and Latin Americans in all city departments and for all firms from which city purchases were made. It was also to create a citizen review board for police brutality and unwarranted search and seizure cases. Addressing the issue of the slums were demands to pass an ordinance that would give the public access to names of property owners and investors in slum areas and increase the garbage collection, street cleaning and building inspections there. Demands directed at the Chicago Housing Authority included rehabilitating existing public housing, adding day care centers, and increasing the amount of scattered low cost housing for low and middle income families. The federal government was to raise the minimum wage to $2.00 per hour, pass the 1966 Civil Rights Act, enforce Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, and monitor the non-discriminatory granting of loans by FDIC member banks.
Appelhans, Bill, and Carolyn Black. "The Chicago Freedom Movement : Summer 1966." Peoplesworld.org. N.p., 18 Jan. 2002. Web. 18 Mar. 2014. This article talks about the struggles that were put to start and continue the Chicago Freedom Movement
Blount, Pauline. "Chicago Activists Challenge Segregation (Chicago Freedom Movement), USA, 1965-1967." Global Nonviolent Action Database. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2014. This article talks about people who worked to end housing discrimination
"CFM40." CFM40. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2014. Talks about issues throughout the CFM.
"CFM40." CFM40. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2014. Talks about the issue in education.
"CFM40." CFM40. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2014. Talks about the issue of housing in the CFM.
"CFM40." CFM40. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2014. Talks about the issue of income and employment in CFM.
Chase & CO., JPMorgan. "The Martin Luther King Jr. Center for Non-violent Social Change." N.p., 10 July 1966. Web. 23 Mar. 2014. The speech given at a rally of CFM.
"Chicago Campaign (1966)." Stanford.edu. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2014. This article talks about the many different things made and done in the Chicago Freedom Movement
"Chicago Freedom Movement - 1966." Wordpress.com. N.p., 24 Nov. 2013. Web. 23 Mar. 2014. This article talks about how the Chicago Movement started.
Dickson, Rachel. "1963 Chicago Public School Boycott | Chicago Tonight | WTTW." 1963 Chicago Public School Boycott | Chicago Tonight | WTTW. N.p., 22 Oct. 2013. Web. 22 Mar. 2014. A boycott in which happened before the CFM but brought great influence on stopping segregated schools.
Dr. Martin Luther King and the Chicago Freedom Movement. N.d. Chicago. Oxford AASC: Photo Essay. Web. 23 Mar. 2014. People nailed demands on City hall.
Dr. Martin Luther King and the Chicago Freedom Movement. N.d. Chicago. Oxford AASC: Photo Essay. Web. 23 Mar. 2014. Workers in the slums of Chicago.
"Dr. Martin Luther King and the Chicago Freedom Movement." Oxford AASC: Photo Essay. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2014. Rally of the Chicago Freedom Movement.
Johnson, R.T. "Chicago Freedom Movement." Historyrat.wordpress.com. N.p., 3 Sept. 2011. Web. 23 Mar. 2014. Points in which the CFM was fighting for.
Lou, Mary. "Success and the Chicago Freedom Movement." Prrac.org. N.p., May-June 2006. Web. 23 Mar. 2014. Things that came out in favor of the CFM and how things were ordered to make a non- violent campaign.
"Martin Luther King Jr. and the Chicago Freedom Movement." Oxfordaasc.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2014. Things done by Martin Luther King Jr. that were meant to fight for equality the North deserved.
Moyer, Williams. "End Slums Discrimination." N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2014. Letter written to Bill Moyer about the issues going on in Chicago
"Power, Politics, & Pride: Dr. King's Chicago Crusade." Dr. King's Chicago Crusade. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2014. This article talks what Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. did and what he accomplished in the CFM
Shortly after his arrival in the city, King began his first experiment in methods to empower residents of the slums. In February, tenants at 1321 S. Hamlin came to King for help. The SCLC and CCCO together with the Westside Federation became extralegal 'trustees' of the building with the tenants paying their rent to the SCLC, which used the money to make repairs. Male tenants of the building were hired as laborers and paid King's proposed new minimum wage, $2.00 per hour. (The minimum wage in 1966 was $1.25.) King told Betty Washington, a reporter for the Defender, that the experiment of taking over that building would give Movement leaders insight into "the kind of social planning that might reverse this trend of degradation of our nation's cities and contribute to the kind of community awareness that will bring new life and new hope to the slums of this city." In this image, King looks through a crawl space opening into the building's basement which workers are cleaning out