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EDU 300 Mind Map - SkyNet

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Adam Little

on 20 March 2015

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Transcript of EDU 300 Mind Map - SkyNet

Reflective Teaching
: requires openness, whole-heartness and responsibility to one's students. These attributes allow one's actions to be critical, active and careful. A practice of continuous improvement.

(Grant & Zeichner, 1984)
1. Teaching Identity
3. Current Issues in Education: Sexual Minorities and Bullying
2. The Structures and Institutions of

4. Serving as an Agent of Change in Schools and Education
Becoming an Effective Teacher in the 21st Century
Teaching is a profession: "It requires a teacher to seek higher standard of conduct than the average person."

(G. Schreiber, January 20th, 2015)
Education Philosophies
Social Reconstruction
: belief that education should focus on the 'universal truths' of Western civilization that are everlasting and constant.

(Martin & Loomis, 2014)
belief that there is essential knowledge base, skills, and understanding that will prepare students for work life.

(Martin & Loomis, 2014)
: belief that education should be student focused, not content focused, which prepares them to be life-long learners in an ever changing society.

(Martin & Loomis, 2014)
Social Reconstruction
: belief that education should instill students with impetus for social change through traditional subjects into interdisciplinary units.

(Martin & Loomis, 2014)
: believes education should be interesting and meaningful to students. Students should be responsible to define their curriculum through they choices they make.

(Martin & Loomis, 2014)
Educational Psychologies

Information Processing
: is a learning theory that states students learning is self-directed and uses intrinic modes of motivation to create meaningful learning through self-evaluation.

(Martin & Loomis, 2014)
: is a learning theory that states learning is shaped by the environmental conditions. Two types exist: classical (Pavlov) and operant (Skinner) conditioning.

(Martin & Loomis, 2014)
Information Processing
is a learning theory that looks at the brain's processes and information. Information is received as stimuli, then encoded, then in stored long-term memory and can be retrieved.

(Martin & Loomis, 2014)
: is a learning theory that states students actively construct their own understanding of information (schema) by combining it with existing knowledge. Students construct new schema based on old ones.

(Martin & Loomis, 2014)
Classroom Management
Student-Directed Management Theory

Teacher-Directed Management Theory

Collaborative Management Theory
: students are allowed to make many decisions in the classroom and therefore are primarily in control of their behaviour and learning.

(Levin, Nolan, Kerr, & Elliott, 2012)

: the teacher makes many decisions in the classroom and therefore the teacher's primarily role is to control of student behaviour.

(Levin et al., 2012)

: the teacher and students share the decision making responsibility in the classroom and the needs of the group come before the individual. Thus, student behaviour is controlled by the group.

(Levin et al., 2012)

Public Education
Canadian education is controlled by the provincial government and paid via property taxes.

+ Public Schools
+ Charter Schools
+ Catholic Schools
+ Francophone Schools

(F. Peters, February 3rd, 2015)

Alberta Education
+ Central authority
+ Controls and maintains curriculum
+ Assesses students for education quality reasons
+ Administers teaching certificates

(F. Peters, February 3rd, 2015)
Alberta Teaching Association
The provincially legislated body of public school teachers that serves regulate teacher professionalism and union functions.

Services include:

+ Governance
+ Teacher Resources
+ Professional Development
+ Teacher Welfare and Representation
+ Member Services

(Maheu, 2015)

School Boards
+ Locally elected
+ Autonomy to make decisions in the best interest for students and communities
+ Provides input to any amendments to School Act
+ Monitor quality of public education
+ "Hire and pay school personnel"
+ Adapts and makes modifications to curriculum

(Maheu, 2015)
School Councils
+ Consists of parents, teachers, and school principal (potentially high school students)

+ Established to accommodate local circumstances

(Maheu, 2015)

Colleges and Universities
+ Train pre-service teachers
+ Alberta has 6 Faculties of Education. [U of A being the BEST ;)]

(Maheu, 2015)

Deputy Minister
: An appointed civil servant, who coordinates the work of the department such as:

+ Planning
+ School Finances
+ Curriculum development
+ Assessment
+ Special Ed.
+ Language Programs
+ School building Maintenance

(Maheu, 2015)

Minister of Education
The elected member of the province that is appointed by the premier.

+ Influences Ed. Policy
+ Dispurses Funding
+ Approves and makes changes to curricula
+ Grants teaching certificates
+ Determines the # of credits required to graduate high school

(Maheu, 2015)

Sir Ken "The Man" Robinson-
"Changing Education Paradigms"
+The education system was built specifically during the industrial age and by intellectuals of the time period (~1750 A.D.).
+ Ed. Systems need to move away from the factory style of age stratification and move towards ability stratification systems.
+ Transition from standardization and towards divergent thinking (looking for more than one correct way of arriving at the same answer).

(Robinson, 2010)

Education Vs. Schooling
: the cultural transmission of knowledge that can takes place in any setting.
(Learning is life-long)
: is the formal institution of education that involves instruction of particular outcomes, purposes, and activites. (Learning is limited)
(Taylor, 1995)
Hidden Curriculum
Formal Curriculum
The curriculum that schools deliberately teach the "official" subject matter that is outlined by Alberta Education (More boardly known as Ministery of Education).

(Taylor, 1995)
The process by which people learn from others. Social competency comes from observing successful individuals within a society and using them as models for behaviour and observing unsuccessful individuals for undesirable behaviour.

As a result, socialization causes stereotyping by rewarding society norms and punishing others that do not conform to the dominant culture.

(Taylor, 1995)
There has been increasing attention to bullying in schools within the past decade. However, homophobia- the discrimination against sexual minorities is a prevalent form of bullying that has NOT been extensively discussed.

(Walton, 2004)
Sexual minorities face social pressures and often become victims of emotional, psychological, and physical bullying.

(Walton, 2004)
The content of socialization is known as hidden curriculum. The content includes cultural and social norms that are usually indoctrinated by the dominate culture at an early age.

This differs from formal curriculum as it's not an explicit objective of the ministry of education.
The majority of socialization occurs in schools indirectly through rules, routines, and 'expected' behaviour.

(Taylor, 1995)

Sexual minority students often feel they have no resources to help them cope with their struggles.

It is teachers responsibility to offer guidance and resources to help.

One helpful resource is the Canadian Rainbow Health Coalition which works to promote the well-being of sexual minorites.
(ATA, 2013)
: the behavioural norms and beliefs of a particular social, ethnic, or age group.
Beliefs may include: common language, symbolic interpretation, and manners.
Behaviours may include: laws, customs,and ways of communications
(Sensory & DiAnglelo, 2012)
Surface Culture
: Visible and formally taught elements of culture.
Deep Culture
: Invisible and informally taught elements of culture. Many more elements exist in this type of culture.
: internalizing the dominant culture for the purpose of fitting into the dominate group.

Conformity is a social influence that generally involves changing behaviours or beliefs in order to fit in with a group.

(Sensory & DiAngelo, 2012)
(O'Connor, 2012)
Agents of Socialization:

Clubs & Social Groups

Teachers must be willing to accept and embrace students of different
. These cultural groups can be differentiated by gender, race, class, sexual orientation, and ideologies.

(ATA, 2010)
It is necessary to construct
inclusive classrooms
in order to welcome, support, and educated ALL students.

(ATA 2010)
For example, Aboriginal students in Canada face difficulties in school due to
: the oppressive and prejudicial actions against a group or person due to their skin colour.

(St. Denis, 2007)
To reverse the trend of students falling through the cracks in the education system, it must begin with us- the teachers.

Personal Reflection: David Kim and Adam Little
As pre-service teachers, education and schooling are critical concepts that influence us in how we choose to look at our careers. We firmly believe that our duty is to
students in all manners both inside the classroom with formal curriculum and outside the classroom with personal connections through our involvement in after-school activities, such as clubs and sports teams. This will allows us help our students reach knowledge beyond the classroom and apply it to their own lives like mutual respect, a sense of humour and a positive attitude.
Proper Vocabulary
: The difference between Sex, Gender, and Orientation.
In order to be agents of change in 21st century education, we as pre-service teachers must be
of our actions and beliefs,
in our conduct both in and beyond the classroom, and become
with our teaching philosophies.

In order to be a reflective teacher, we feel it is critically important to be open to our students’ diversity, whole-hearted in our acceptance of our students’ diversity and responsible to meet the needs of our students’ diverse skills and abilities.

These values are essential to promoting high student standards, effective education, and robust instruction for ALL students within Canadian schools.
Personal Reflection: David Kim and Adam Little:
Personal Reflection: David Kim
Edu 300 has taught me the importance of maintaining proper cultural practices, especially when dealing with sexual minority students.

For example, I never knew the significance using proper pronouns could have on students. I had never heard of the class of "z" pronouns such as ze (she) and zir (her), but plan to be mindful of them in the future.

(P. Leflar, March 17th, 2015)
Bullying and Sexual Minority Students
Personal Reflection: David Kim and Adam Little
We feel a collaborative classroom management style is the most cohesive style with our progressivist-constructivist approach. It feels like a more modern approach to managing students that is more evolved and refined than the teacher-directed style used in previous years of public education. We maintain a leadership role in the classroom but not in authoritarian way. We understand that all learners have personal, emotional and educational needs and we wish to help them by guiding them so that we create a trusting relationship. We want to be seen as collaborators with the students not just deliverers of instruction. Therefore, when we model good behaviour, the behaviour we want to see, then students will follow in our example.
Personal Reflection: David Kim and Adam Little
We both firmly believe that 21st century education must embody values that break the mold of traditionalism founded in the 19th century.

To do this, we must first shape our teaching identities along this arc; embracing teaching philosophies like
, psychological models like
, coupled with a
classroom management style is a good foundation to start slowly reinventing old-school school structures and truly begin changing education paradigms.
Personal Reflection: David Kim and Adam Little
Progressivism aligns most closely to our teaching philosophies because we both believe in a more balanced approach to modern teaching that focuses on students' curiosities, abilities, and learning styles which are important factors in developing and assessing each student's learning. We want to encourage our students to pursue their interests and solve problems in a way that makes sense to them. We as teachers, are the bridge between Alberta Education's mandated curriculum and students' interests. Thus, the control of knowledge and education is shared between the teacher and the students.

Further, we concur that this robust pedagogical stance works best for teachers and students in the 21st century. Since, society is constantly changing and students need to be inspired to change with it by being life-long learners and using their interests to motivate their learning.
Personal Reflection: David Kim and Adam Little
We are seriously concerned with bullying, especially, in regards to sexual and gender minority students. The best way to mitigate bullying is with proper education of student diversity that focuses on
and the
hidden curriculum
. From personal experience, we feel that the current social structure of schools magnify the institutional oppression of sexual and gender minorities, which prevents those students from realizing their full potentials. We believe it is important for teachers to model proper social behaviour in order to cultivate socially responsible students. According to Parker LeFlar, 10% of gender minorities heard a sexual or gender slur from a teacher (March 17th, 2015). This is alarming to us and we really want to emphasize that student safety is incredibly important to conducive learning. Therefore, we must always model good behaviour and be careful what we say.

In addition, we though a great way to break barriers for sexual and gender minority students is by creating a comfortable and safe environment in the classroom. We explored the idea of supporting high risk students by letting them know that we're here to listen if they want to talk. Also, we believe encouraging the formation of minority group clubs, student rallies, and modeling proper daily interaction are simple ways to create a supportive space.
Personal Reflection: David Kim and Adam Little
We have discussed how difficult it is to completely rid ourselves of our personal biases, beliefs, and assumptions about certain cultures and peoples. After all, socialization and personal biases are generally internalized.

However, we both agree that we must actively try to
and adapt our teaching as to avoid alienating students. We must try to become sensitive to all students of all circumstances. Then we can become agents of change within the education system, and eventually society.
Working Towards Including All Groups
In addition to sexual minorities, we must be sensitive to the needs of any student who does not fit into the dominate culture.

Generally, minority students are at the great risk for being marginalized or segregated which means they will receive a sub-standard education. This NOT acceptable as a teacher who wants to become an agent of change.
Personal Reflection: David Kim
This video by Sir Robinson profoundly influenced my understanding of the current education system: as a product of the out-dated education model designed during the Industrial Revolution.

Since watching this, my beliefs that we need a more modern approach to education has been strengthened, but reinvigorated with new found understanding of the problems we face today.

It is quite possibly the most influential work I've seen during my Education degree.

Yellow lines
indicate relationships between reflections.
Rectangular boxes
indicate our personal reflections.

Personal Reflection: David Kim and Adam Little
We feel a progressivist-constructivist approach works well together because the constructivist psychology believes that the student creates their own blue print of how knowledge fits together and based on their individual interests. Ultimately, constructivism and progressivism focuses on the acquisition and the processing of knowledge by the student. We feel this is critical as it allows them to reflect and defend their solutions in a variety of ways, instead of just projecting the teacher's interpretation of knowledge and how it should fit together. We want to engage our students with hands-on activities, projects, and design challenges in order to inspire them to build on top of their own understanding while motivating them with their curiosities and learning styles.
Personal Reflection: David Kim and Adam Little
It is important for us as teachers to understand the education hierarchy that we will work in and are made aware of the governing bodies that we subscribe to as Alberta teachers.

For example, we now understand that the curriculum is set by Alberta Education and implemented by the school boards. We also understand our roles in shaping Alberta education through our participation in the ATA. We did not previously know that the ATA was mandatory for all teachers but now we are excited to become members and start engaging with other teachers to bring about change.

Adam Little: Recently as a volunteer, I have been working a lot with the new math curriculum in the elementary grades. As a self-proclaimed math fanatic, I enjoy many of the changes Education Minister Jeff Johnson has brought to the new math curriculum. As a pre-service teacher, I love the broadened learning outcomes that focus on multiple ways of delivering a math method. However, I feel fundamental approaches such as memorization and rote still have their place in the curriculum. I strongly believe that certain things like times tables are foundational and need to be memorized, just like words in language. The focus seems to be on knowing multiple methods for approaching a problem rather than looking at the method a student finds resonates most with them.
Personal Reflection: Adam Little
("The Genderbread Person, n.d.)

I am passionate about inclusive education. Ideally, the inclusion of ALL students should happen at all levels of school life both in the classroom and out. However, given the demands of the curriculum, the experience of the teacher and the philosophy of the school, meaningful inclusive opportunities may not exist in the classroom. If a student is faced with this situation, there are other areas of the school community where inclusive opportunities can exist. In my mind, getting to know your students is paramount to knowing how to include a student. However, sometimes communication can be a challenge like a child with non-verbal autism or newly immigrated student. Regardless, it helps to connect with the family and ask for ideas to submit to the school administration as to how we can be more inclusive. Since, myself and many schools are still learning ways in which inclusion can (and should) happen.

For examples, lunchtime clubs provide students who have busy afternoon schedules to still be included in the school community by offering a convenient time for students to interact with other students and teachers of similar interests.
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