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AP Euro Art in a nutshell

AP European History
by

Sharmi Amin

on 29 April 2015

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Transcript of AP Euro Art in a nutshell

AP European History
Pop Art
AP European History:
Art in a Nutshell

Sharmi Amin & Isabella Alvarez
Mrs. Doran
2nd Period
December 16th-January 6th
Baroque
Renaissance
Fauvism
Rococo
Neoclassical
Post-Impressionism
Cubism
Abstract Expressionism
Realism
Impressionism
Romanticism
1600-1750
1350-1600
"Farnese Gallery"
Annibale Carracci
1597-1608
Renaissance art emerged around 1350, reached its peak between the 15th and 16th centuries, and ended around 1600. It was dominant in Italy and centered around the city of Florence where it originated. It spread all throughout Europe and especially to the North which is referred to as the Norther Renaissance. The high renaissance spanned from 1500 to 1520 and is known for its artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael. The Renaissance emerged from a new understanding of science and the world. A rediscovery of ancient Greek and Roman art and literature mixed with more in depth studies of science and the human body led to an art movement that focused on human life and the positive aspects of it rather than God, the afterlife, and the idea that all humans are sinful.
"Samson and Delilah"
Peter Paul Rubens
1609-1610
"Girl with the Pearl Earring"
Johannes Vermeer
1665
"St Maria in Via Lata"
Pietro Berrettini da Cortona
1658-62, Rome
"Milo of Crotona"
Pierre Puget
1671-1682
"The Death of Marat"
Jacques-Louis David
1793–1793
"The Death of the General Wolfe"
Benjamin West
1771
"The Turkish Bath""
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
1862
"The Pantheon"
Jacques-Germain Soufflot
1756-97, Paris
Middle Ages vs. Renaissance
"La Bacchanale"
Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot
1873
"The Gleaners"
Jean-Francois Millet
1857
1536
"Corpus Christi Morning"
Ferdinand Georg Waldmuller
1857
Early 12th century
Proportionally inaccurate
Inaccurate human features
Religious subjects
Two dimensional
"The Dance Studio"
Edgar Degas
1878
"Sunset, Bazincourt Steeple"
Camille Pissaro
1890
Madonna and Child
by Berlinghiero
Mona Lisa
by Da Vinci
"Starry Night"
Vincent Van Gogh
1889
"The Château at Médan"
Paul Cézanne
1880
"A Sunday Afternoon on the Île de la Grande Jatte"
George Seurat
1884-1886
"The Start of the Race of the Riderless"
Horace Vernet
1820
"Alfred Dedreux as a Child"
Théodore Gericault
1819–1820
Use of light and shadows for a 3D effect
Perspective
Accurate human anatomy
Secular subject
"Royal Tiger"
Eugène Delacroix
1829
1600-1750
"The Lesson of Love"
Jean-Antoine Watteau
1716 - 1717
"Le Dejeuner"
Francois Boucher
1739
"The Stolen Kiss"
Jean-Honore Fragonard
1788
Baroque Art was popular during the 17th century and first half of the 18th century. It started in Rome in response to the Protestant Reformation as a way to make religious art more appealing. Pieces such as
The Conversion of St. Paul
by Caravaggio (1601) show this. As the Baroque style spread to the rest of Europe it became less about religion and more about the artistic style itself, with some of its most popular pieces depicting common people. Baroque art is known for its detail, emotion, and intense use of light. The Baroque movement produced artists such as Caravaggio, Bernini, Van Dyck, and Rembrandt.
"Figure dans un Fauteuil"
Pablo Picasso
1909-1910
Renaissance vs. Baroque
"Violin and Glass"
Juan Gris
1915
"Violin and Jug"
Georges Braque
1910
18th Century
"No. 5"
Jackson Pollock
1948
"Canticle"
Mark Tobey
1954
"Symphony No. 1, The Transcendental"
Richard Pousette-Dart
1941-1942

"Drowning Girl"
Roy Lichtenstein
1963
"Three Machines"
Wayne Thiebaud
1963
Rococo art began in Paris with the reign of Louis XV. By 1760 in France it was "out of style" but it continued to spread to Germany, Austria, England, and Central Europe. Rococo paintings, interior design, and architecture were all in style during the 18th century. As stated before, the art movement closely coincided with the rule of Louis XV and showcased the frivolity and wealth of the aristocracy. Architecture and interior design during the Rococo movement was incredibly ornate, nonfunctional, and delicate. The art was similar with paintings being light and whimsical with the subjects often being dream-like, hazy, and beautiful.
.
"Marilyn Monroe"
Andy Warhol
1962
c. 1760- 1820
"Portrait of Madame Matisse"
Henri Matisse
1906
"Charing Cross Bridge, London"
André Derain
1906
"Paysage coloré aux oiseaux aquatique"
Jean Metzinger
1907
Neoclassicism emerged in 1760 as a Western movement which was partly a reaction to Baroque art but ultimately an attempt to bring order and stability to a time when France and America were both engulfed in chaos due to revolution. The art was simple and generally unemotional compared to other styles. Painting subjects ranged from relevant current events to depictions of ancient, historical events.


"The Transfiguration"
Raphael
1517
"The Last Supper"
Leonardo da Vinci
1498
"David"
Donatello
1430–1440
The Pietà
Michelangelo
1498–1499
"Château de Chambord"
Pierre Nepveu
1519-1539, France

"Spoonbridge and Cherry"
Claes Oldenburg, Cooje van Bruggen
1985-1988

La Charite
Paul Dubois
1870
1350-1600
1720 – 1790
1760-1820
"Cupid and Psyche"
Antonio Canova
1786-1793
1800-1860
1850-1870
1880-1900
1870-1890
"The Bridge at Villeneuve-la-Garenne"
Alfred Sisley
1872
1905-1908
1907-1914
"Becca"
David Smith
1965

1940-1965
1955-1990
"Head of a Woman (Fernande)"
Pablo Picasso
1909
"The Tempestuous Lovers"
Franz Anton Bustelli
1760

"Departure of the Volunteers"
François Rude
1792
"Apple Core"
Claes Oldenburg
1992
"Eternal Springtime"
Auguste Rodin
1881
"St. Andrew's Church"
Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli
1744–1767, Kiev


"The Royal Pavilion"
John Nash
1787-1823
"Cubist Head"
Emil Filla
1913
"Petite Danseuse De Quatorze Ans"
Edgar Degas
1881
"The Walking Man"
Fonderie Alexis Rudier
1913
"Monument to Balzac"
Auguste Rodin
1892-1897
1800-1860
The Romantic movement took place in the 19th century and challenged Enlightenment ideas by stating that reason alone could not explain everything. Romanticism was dominant in England and Germany although its birthplace was in France where the Enlightenment was popular. The movement emphasized emotion, feeling, intuition, and imagination. The Romantic movement inspired art and literature as well as a revival of Gothic architecture. It reexamined many commonly accepted beliefs. For instance it deemed the Middle Ages as a time of intense spirituality and emotion rather than just "the Dark Ages."
1850-1870
Realism was a movement that took place in the mid to late 19th century. The movement began in France and was popular in Russia, America, and England. It harshly rejected the emotion and drama of Romanticism and was a reaction to the Industrial Revolution. Realism accurately showcased contemporary subjects doing everyday things, even if it was not necessarily pretty. Subjects ranged from the low, working class to the upper class. New lifestyle changes that occurred due to the Industrial Revolution were often shown in works. In an effort to truthfully show subjects without artificiality, photography grew in popularity as a form of art during the time.
1870-1890
Impressionist art became popular in the late 19th century when a group of French artists including Claude Monet began painting landscapes and still life rather than the portraits and historically and religiously themed paintings that were accepted in Paris as the time. Impressionist artists received popularity through independent exhibitions and were publicly criticized by a majority of the French art community. Impressionists valued natural beauty and often painted their surroundings while outdoors rather than just painting in a studio. These impressionist artists were seen as radical at the time because their art did stray drastically from what was commonly seen as art during the time in France.
1880-1890
Post-Impressionism took place from 1880-1890 and was dominant in France. It was in some ways an extension of Impressionism but in other ways, it rejected it. It's also important to remember that Post-Impressionism encompassed many styles of art with pieces ranging from dreamy ones like Starry Night by van Gogh (1889) to simpler and flat like ones like The Centenary of Independence by Henri Rousseau (1892.) It started to stray away from the naturalistic approach of Impressionism and rejected a preoccupation with mastery of light that Impressionist painters had. Works became less natural and more abstract. Flat color and heavy outlines in works became more commonly used.
1905-1908
Fauvism was an art style born in France during the early 20th century which was led by Matisse and Derain. Fauves directly translated to "wild beasts" which is what these artists were called because of their clashing, intense use of color, distorted forms, and wild brush strokes. It went against many common ideas about art with its use of colors, abstractness, and form. Fauvism, much like Cubism and Post-Impressionism, rejected traditional art and in a sense also rejected tradition in general.
1907-1914
Cubism began in the early 20th century in Paris with the movement being led by artists such as Picasso and Braque. It further strayed from Impressionism with pieces being highly abstracted and in some cases, indiscernible. It rejected the idea that you should copy nature and was highly symbolic. It was not necessarily a reaction to anything in particular but was simply a continuation of the straying from traditional art that began with Impressionism.
1940-1965
Abstract Expressionism was a post World War II art movement that flourished in New York City. It furthered Cubism which had abstract, indiscernible subjects to the point where pieces were completely symbolic and abstract. Movement and spontaneity were highlighted in Abstract Expressionism, especially shown in the chaotic works of American painter Jackson Pollock. Abstract Expressionism was partly an attempt to understand the horrors of the world wars that had ruined so many lives in the early 20th century and partly a lashing out of the conservative politics during the time of the Cold War. Paranoia filled the streets of America due to the Cold War which is also apparent in some of the chaotic works of the time.
1955-1990
Pop Art was an art movement from the late 50s to the early 90s in America and Great Britain. Pop Art was derived from mass culture and often showcased celebrities and advertisements. Andy Warhol is the most notable artist from the time and is best known for his colorful piece depicting American actress Marilyn Monroe as well as his large scale painting of a Campbell soup can. Pop Art is an extension of the Dada art movement which was known for either purposely making no sense at all or rejecting beauty. These unconventional art pieces in both cases tried to make sense of the 20th century which was filled with wars and hardship. Pop Art lashed out against what was commonly accepted to be art in a sort of rebellion against the same society which thought two world wars and a Cold War would be a good idea.
Baroque vs. Rococo
Rococo vs. Neoclassicism
Neoclassicism vs. Romanticism
Romanticism vs. Realism
Realism vs. Impressionism
Impressionism vs. Post-Impressionism
Post-Impressionism vs. Fauvism
Fauvism vs. Cubism
Cubism vs. Abstract Expressionism
Abstract Expressionism vs. Pop Art
The School of Athens
by Raphael
1509
The Conversion of Saint Pau
l by Caravaggio
1601
The Descent from the Cross
by Rubens
The Embarkation for Cythera
by Watteau
1719
1614
La Dejeuner
by Boucher
1739
The Death of Marat
by Jaques-Louis David
1793
Napoleon Crossing the Alps
by Jaques-Louis David
1801
Use of light and shadows for a 3D effect
Perspective
Accurate human anatomy
Secular subject
Ornate
Emotional
Dramatic use of light and dark (contrast)
Initially religious subjects
Ornate
Emotional
Dramatic use of light and dark (contrast)
Initially religious subjects
Art usually had a playful or energetic mood
Delicate and graceful
Generally lighter colors are used
Usually secular subjects
Art generally had a playful or energetic mood
Delicate and graceful
Generally lighter colors are used
Usually secular subjects
Calm tone
Stressed order
Brush strokes are not visible
Subjects were often from Greek/Roman history or mythology
Calm tone
Stressed order
Brush strokes are not visible
Subjects are often from Greek/Roman history or mythology
Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog
by Friedrich
1818
Valued emotion, imagination, and intuition
Spontaneous/nonconformist tone
Deep color and strong light contrast is used
Subjects range from nature to legends to exotic subjects
Rain, Steam and Speed- The Western Railway
by J.M.W Turner
1844
The Widower by Fildes
1876
Valued emotion, imagination, and intuition
Spontaneous/nonconformist tone
Deep color and strong light contrast used
Subjects range from nature to legends to exotic subjects
Imitated things without adding artificial elements
Subject matter was usually things artists would encounter in everyday life; paintings of common life became mainstream
Aimed to show the trust as best as possible
Figures were real people rather than idealized types
The Third Class Wagon
by Daumier
1864
Imitated things without adding artificial elements
Subject matter would portray things artists would encounter in everyday life
Aimed to show the truth as best as possible
Figures were real people rather than idealized types
Grainstack (Sunset)
by Monet
1891
Subjects were generally outdoors, seaside, Parisian streets, and cafes
Visible, choppy brushstrokes were used
The purpose was to show "immediate visual sensations of a scene" (basically exactly what a scene looked like at a glance)
Broader range of colors used
San Giorgio Maggiore at Dusk
by Monet
1912
Subjects were generally outdoors, seaside, Parisian Streets, and cafes
Visible, choppy brushstrokes were used
The purpose was to show "immediate visual sensations of a scene" (basically exactly what a scene looked like at a glace)
Broader range of colors used
The Night Cafe
by Van Gogh
1888
Strays away from naturalism
Focuses less on light
Slightly more abstract than styles before it
Colors are bold and less natural
The Starry Night
by van Gogh
1889
Strays away from naturalism
Focuses less on light
Slightly more abstract than styles before it
Colors are bold and less natural
Woman With a Hat
by Matisse
1905
Intense, bright, clashing colors
Distorted forms and perspective
Vigorous, wild brushstrokes
Refusal to imitate nature; completely from the artists perspective
Green Stripe
by Matisse
1905
Mandolin and Guitar
by Picasso
1924
Intense, bright, clashing colors
Distorted forms and perspective
Vigorous, wild brushstrokes
Refusal to imitate nature; completely from the artists perspective
Multiple viewpoints used in paintings
Highly abstracted/distorted
2D paintings
Generally very geometric
Man With a Pipe
by Picasso
1915
Multiple viewpoints used in paintings
Highly abstracted/distorted
2D
Generally very geometric
Number 28
by Jackson Pollock
1950
Free, random application of paint
Does not reference visual reality
Shows action/movement
Aim is to express inner life and emotion
Convergence
by Jackson Pollock

1952
Marilyn Diptych
by Andy Warhol
1962
Free, random application of paint
Does not reference visual reality
Shows action/movement
Aim is to express inner life and emotion
Subjects directly from pop culture
Impersonal
Vibrant colors
Has a modern and "hip" feel
Used for marketing
Subjects directly from pop culture
Impersonal
Vibrant colors
Has a modern and "hip" feel
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