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Genetics

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Alexander DeDecker

on 28 October 2016

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Transcript of Genetics

Mendel's Laws of Heredity
Why Mendel Succeeded
Mendel began his experiments on rats, but the bishop above him frowned upon the study of animal sex, so Mendel switched to a plant; the garden pea.

This fortuitous selection is what allowed him to control all the variables except the one he wanted to study.

Careful research methods and meticulous mathematical analysis allowed Mendel to obtain and subsequentially share his results in a clear and concise manner.
Heredity
the passing on of charaeristics from parent to offspring. Characteristics that are inherited are called
Traits
Genetics
the branch of biology that studies
Gametes
male and female sex cells; the unison of one of each results in
Fertilization
results in a fertilized cell called a
Zygote
Mendel's Monohybrid Crosses
Pollination
the transfer of pollen grains from a male reproductive organ to a female reproductive organ in a plant. If the transfer involves parents that have different forms of a trait, then it results in a
Hybrid
Rule of Unit Factors
Each organism has two factors that control each of its traits.
Rule of Dominance
One of the two factors governs the trait and the alternate form of the trait is only present if the dominant factor is completely absent.
Alleles
different forms of a gene. Typically one form is
Dominant
and the other form is
Recessive
Law of Segregation
Every individual has two alleles of each gene and gametes produced by this individual each recieve one of these two alleles.
Use the same letter for different alleles of the same gene
Genetics Conventions
Dominant alleles are capitalized
Dominant alleles are written first
Genotype
Phenotype
the allele combination an organism has in its DNA
the way an organism looks or behaves
Note how many stages there are for complete expression of genetic material; all must be executed flawlessly for proper expression.
What results when errors occur in these steps?
BB
Bb
Bb
bb
Heterozygous
for a trait if its two alleles differ from each other
An organism is
Homozygous
If both alleles for a trait are identical, the organism is said to be
Law of Independent Assortment
Genes for different traits are inherited independently from each other.
Meiosis
produces gametes which contain half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell; we classify these produced gametes as
Haploid
because each individual cell has exactly one copy of each chromosome. The parent cell, which contained two copies of every chromosome, we classify as
Diploid
and each pair of chromosomes we call
Homologous Chromosomes
each of which has genes for the same traits.
Sexual Reproduction
the production and subsequent fusion of haploid gametes.
Crossing Over
In prophase, the homologous chromosome tetrads form so tightly that non-sister chromatids can break and exchange genetic material. This can occur at any location on a chromosome and at several locations at once.
Nondisjunction
the failure of homologous chromosomes to seperate properly during meiosis.
Turner Syndrome
Polyploid
an organism with more than the usual number of chromosome sets.
The reassortment of chromosomes and the data they carry is called
Genetic Recombination
Ethics question...
Suppose that in the future, cybernetics become so commmonplace that everyone has machine components implanted to enhance their ability to compete in the workforce. A sect arise who begin to genetically predispose their children to interface with these computer components, making them even more effective. Are these children still human? Would you oppose such genetic modification or would you yourself modify your children so that they would have the same enhancements and competitive edge? Why or why not?
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