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Speak Style Devices

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by

Carla Webber

on 12 August 2014

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Transcript of Speak Style Devices

Speak Style Devices
Diction
An author’s word choice; focus on single words.
Diction is divided into two types:
Denotation and Connotation.
Authors use specific words to convey action, reveal character, imply attitudes, identify themes, and suggest values

Helps convey tone
Imagery/Detail
Descriptive language that deals with any of the five senses (sight, touch, smell, hearing, and taste); strong images in phrases.

Imagery is any series of words that create a picture, or sensory experience in your head.

Imagery helps the reader imagine the sensations described through the language of the author.

Not all descriptions can rightly be called imagery; the key is the appeal to and stimulation of senses

“painting a picture with words”
Common Style Devices
Three of the most common style devices you will track this year are:
Allusions
Symbols
Motifs
Characterization and Theme

Identify the subject of the literary piece.
ex. friendship, growing up
Create a universal statement about the theme.
ex. Friendship is the most valuable thing a person could have.
ex. Growing up is a painful process that involves achieving knowledge of one’s surroundings.
Find several examples from the literature to support your theme statement.
ex. Ivy helps Melinda with her project; rinse out her shirt; shows her the writing on the wall.
ex. Melinda is raped;

How to make a theme statement

A literary device that quickly stimulates different ideas and associations using only a couple of words.

Allusion relies on the reader’s being able to understand the allusion and being familiar with the meaning hidden behind the words.

Allusion cont.

How does Anderson use diction and imagery to develop believable characters?

Focused Reading: First Marking Period

Main Character: A character on which a significant portion of the plot focuses; generally a round, dynamic character whose struggles seem genuine and believable as s/he changes over the course of the storyline; also referred to as a major or central character.
Subordinate Character: A character who has influence on the main character in either encouraging or inhibiting his/her change and development; also referred to as a minor, lesser, or supporting character.

Character Roles

Static Character: One who stays the same throughout the story. Events in the story do not alter a static character’s outlook, personality, motivation, perception, habits, etc. (Example: A disorganized woman who is repeatedly fired from her new jobs)
Dynamic Character: One who grows or changes as the story develops. The character’s change in outlook or personality is permanent. (Example: Ebenezer Scrooge changes from stingy to generous)


Flat Character: One-dimensional character who reveals only one or two personality traits throughout the story. The traits do not change, and the character exists to move the action forward. (Example the witty butler)
Round Character: A well developed, multi-dimensional character whose well-rounded personality demonstrates varied and sometimes contradictory traits. (Example: a character who gives excellent advise, but cannot seem to follow it him/herself)

Character Types

Style Analysis

Theme is different from subject. A story’s subject might be stated as “growing up”, “love”, “heroism”, or “fear.”
The theme is the statement the writer wants to make about that subject.

Theme is NOT the subject!

A theme is the insight about human life that is revealed in a literary work.
Themes are rarely stated in literature. Most often, a reader has to infer the theme of the work after considerable thought.

Theme

"allusion." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 31 Oct. 2009
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/16658/allusion>.

A reference to some piece of knowledge not actually mentioned or explained.
Most allusions are based on the assumption that there is a body of knowledge that is shared by the author and the reader and that therefore the reader will understand the author’s referent.
Allusions to biblical figures and figures from classical mythology are common in Western literature for this reason.
Allusions can refer to a well-known person, place, event literary work or work of art.
An allusion may be drawn from history, geography, literature, or religion.

Allusion

Foil: a character who sets off [or accentuates] another character by contrast.
Ex. One character (Henry) may portray a reasonable and serious character, the other (Jacob) portrays a funny, dumb character. Henry and Jacob are character foils.

Character Types (Cont)

Characterization is the process by which a writer reveals the personality of a character.
Direct Characterization tells the audience what the personality of the character is: “The patient boy and quiet girl were both well mannered and did not disobey their mother.”
Indirect Characterization shows aspects that reveal the personality of a character through speech, thoughts, effect on others toward the character, actions, and appearance (mnemonic STEAL).

Characterization

What is the author’s tone in describing the convict?
The speaker’s tone?

“A fearful man, all in coarse grey, with a great iron on his leg. A man with no hat, and with broken shoes, and with an old rag tied round his head. A man who had been soaked in water, and smothered in mud, and lamed by stones, and cut by flints, and stung by nettles, and torn by briars; who limped, and shivered, and glared and growled; and whose teeth chattered in his head as he seized me by the chin.”

The author’s and speaker’s attitudes toward the subject and toward the audience

Tone may be formal, informal, intimate, playful, serious, etc.

Without tone, a piece of literature would have no emotion, and therefore be very boring

Tone conveys feelings and emotions, and sets the mood for the work

descriptive language that deals with any of the five senses (sight, touch, smell, hearing, and taste); strong images in phrases.

Imagery is any series of words that create a picture, or sensory experience in your head.

Imagery helps the reader imagine the sensations described through the language of the author.

Not all descriptions can rightly be called imagery; the key is the appeal to and stimulation of senses

“painting a picture with words”

The emotional implications and associations that a single word may carry, as distinguished from its denotative meanings
What do the following words make you think of? How do they make you feel?
Mother
Home
Skull

Connotation

The literal or dictionary meaning of a single word
Mother
Home
Skull

Denotation

An author’s word choice; focus on single words.
Diction is divided into two types:
Denotation and Connotation.
Authors use specific words to convey action, reveal character, imply attitudes, identify themes, and suggest values

Helps convey tone

Author’s use vivid imagery to create believable characters we can easily visualize and relate to.

Characterization

In general terms, anything that is itself and stands for something else. Underlying meanings.
Obvious examples are flags, which symbolize a nation; the cross is a symbol for Christianity; Uncle Sam a symbol for the United States.
In literature, a symbol is expected to have significance.
In To Kill a Mocking Bird , a mocking bird is literally spoken about but it becomes a symbol.
Difference between a motif and symbol: motifs reoccur throughout the work.

Motif

A usually recurring salient thematic element.
A recurring feature in literature which, through repetition, gains importance and underscores a particular theme.
In “Ballad of Birmingham” we see the white shoes the little girl wears to go to church. The first time we see it, as a part of her careful preparation to go to choir practice, it symbolizes her innocence and purity. The second time we see it, empty, separate from its owner, it still symbolizes her innocence and purity, but it also underscores a powerful message that, if injustices remain unchallenged, violent atrocities will infiltrate and destroy innocence and purity, even in the most sacred places.


The literal or dictionary meaning of a single word
Mother
Home
Skull

Denotation

The emotional implications and associations that a single word may carry, as distinguished from its denotative meanings

What do the following words make you think of? How do they make you feel?

Mother
Home
Skull

Connotation

The author’s and speaker’s attitudes toward the subject and toward the audience

Tone may be formal, informal, intimate, playful, serious, etc.

Without tone, a piece of literature would have no emotion, and therefore be very boring

Tone conveys feelings and emotions, and sets the mood for the work

What is the author’s tone in describing the convict?
The speaker’s tone?

“A fearful man, all in coarse grey, with a great iron on his leg. A man with no hat, and with broken shoes, and with an old rag tied round his head. A man who had been soaked in water, and smothered in mud, and lamed by stones, and cut by flints, and stung by nettles, and torn by briars; who limped, and shivered, and glared and growled; and whose teeth chattered in his head as he seized me by the chin.”


Indirect Characterization shows aspects that reveal the personality of a character through speech, thoughts, effect on others toward the character, actions, and appearance (mnemonic STEAL).

Characterization
Static Character: One who stays the same throughout the story. Events in the story do not alter a static character’s outlook, personality, motivation, perception, habits, etc. (Example: A disorganized woman who is repeatedly fired from her new jobs)

Dynamic Character: One who grows or changes as the story develops. The character’s change in outlook or personality is permanent. (Example: Ebenezer Scrooge changes from stingy to generous)


Flat Character: One-dimensional character who reveals only one or two personality traits throughout the story. The traits do not change, and the character exists to move the action forward. (Example the witty butler)
Round Character: A well developed, multi-dimensional character whose well-rounded personality demonstrates varied and sometimes contradictory traits. (Example: a character who gives excellent advise, but cannot seem to follow it him/herself)

Character Types

Foil: a character who sets off [or accentuates] another character by contrast.
Ex. One character (Henry) may portray a reasonable and serious character, the other (Jacob) portrays a funny, dumb character. Henry and Jacob are character foils.

Character Types (Cont)

Main Character: A character on which a significant portion of the plot focuses; generally a round, dynamic character whose struggles seem genuine and believable as s/he changes over the course of the storyline; also referred to as a major or central character.

Subordinate Character: A character who has influence on the main character in either encouraging or inhibiting his/her change and development; also referred to as a minor, lesser, or supporting character.

Character Roles

Author’s use vivid imagery to create believable characters we can easily visualize and relate to.

Characterization

How does Anderson use diction and imagery to develop believable characters?

Consider for Focused Reading:
"allusion." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 31 Oct. 2009
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/16658/allusion>.

A reference to some piece of knowledge not actually mentioned or explained.

Most allusions are based on the assumption that there is a body of knowledge that is shared by the author and the reader and that therefore the reader will understand the author’s referent.

Allusions to biblical figures and figures from classical mythology are common in Western literature for this reason.

Allusions can refer to a well-known person, place, event literary work or work of art.

An allusion may be drawn from history, geography, literature, or religion.

Allusion
A literary device that quickly stimulates different ideas and associations using only a couple of words.

Allusion relies on the reader’s being able to understand the allusion and being familiar with the meaning hidden behind the words.

Allusion cont.

In general terms, anything that is itself and stands for something else. Underlying meanings.

Obvious examples are flags, which symbolize a nation; the cross is a symbol for Christianity; Uncle Sam a symbol for the United States.

In literature, a symbol is expected to have significance.
In
Speak
, a tree is literally spoken about but it becomes a symbol of growth and transformation.

Difference between a motif and symbol: motifs reoccur throughout the work.
Motif
A usually recurring salient thematic element.

A recurring feature in literature which, through repetition, gains importance and underscores a particular theme.

For example, in “Ballad of Birmingham” we see a single white shoe a little girl wears to go to church. The first time we see it along with its match, as a part of her careful preparation to go to choir practice, it symbolizes her innocence and purity. The second time we see it, empty, separate from its owner, it still symbolizes her innocence and purity, but it also underscores a powerful message that, if injustices remain unchallenged, violent atrocities will infiltrate and destroy innocence and purity, even in the most sacred places.


A theme is the insight about human life that is revealed in a literary work.

Themes are rarely stated in literature. Most often, a reader has to infer the theme of the work after considerable thought.

Theme
Theme is different from subject. A story’s subject might be stated as “growing up”, “love”, “heroism”, or “fear.”

The theme is the statement the writer wants to make about that subject.

Theme is NOT the subject!

1. Identify the subject of the literary piece.
ex. friendship, growing up

2. Create a universal statement about the theme.
ex. Friendship is the most valuable thing a person could have.
ex. Growing up is a painful process that involves achieving knowledge of one’s surroundings.

3. Find several examples from the literature to support your theme statement.
ex. Ivy helps Melinda with her project; rinse out her shirt; shows her the writing on the wall.
ex. Melinda is raped;

How to make a theme statement

Characterization is the process by which a writer reveals the personality of a character.

Direct Characterization tells the audience what the personality of the character is: “The patient boy and quiet girl were both well mannered and did not disobey their mother.”
Indirect Characterization
Direct Characterization
Symbol
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