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Chapter 6 Federalists and Republicans US
Transcript of Chapter 6 Federalists and Republicans US
Section 2: Partisan Politics
Jefferson in Office
Section 4 The War of 1812
5.) Identify key cases that helped shape the United States Supreme Court, including Marbury versus Madison, McCullough versus Maryland, and Cherokee Nation versus Georgia.
• Identifying concepts of loose and strict constructionism
6.) Describe relations of the United States with Britain and France from 1781 to 1823, including the XYZ Affair, the War of 1812, and the Monroe Doctrine.
Ch. 6 Section 1: Washington and Congress
Creating a New Government
*Washington: President (1789)
-Dept. of State
-Dept. of Treasury
-Dept. of War
-Office of Attorney General
*Washington appointed (Cabinet)
-Jefferson: Sec. of State
-A. Hamilton: Sec. of Treasury
-Henry Knox: Sec. of War
-Edmund Randolph: Attorney Gen.
Financing the Govt
Tariff of 1789
*govt most pressing need: source of revenue
*J. Madison & A. Hamilton
*Madison: raise money by taxing imports from other countries
*tariff: required importers to pay a percentage of value of cargo
-Shippers: tonnage (based on how much ships carry)
*Southern planters: opposed
-higher rates to ship rice
*suspected the new govt was opposed to their region's interests
-believed needed the ability to borrow money
*Bonds: paper notes promising to repay money after a certain length of time with interest
-to fund war
-few believed bonds would never be paid in full
*Madison: "unfair" to original buyers
*people feared of never being paid, sold bonds to speculators at discount
*Madison = outraged
-northern owned bonds
-southerners taxes pay bonds
*Hamilton, Madison, Jefferson = struck deal
-Southerners in Congress: vote for Hamilton's deal
-moved capital south (DC)
Bank of US
*Hamilton: National Bank
-manage debts & interest payments
-issue paper money
*Madison argued Congress could not establish a bank
-not a part of enumerated powers
(powers specifically mentioned in Constitution)
*Bank bill: passed
*Jefferson & Randolph: not Constitutional
*Article I, Section 8
"to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper"
-implied powers: powers not explicitly listed in the Const. but necessary for the govt. to do its job.
-Bank: necessary to:
-provide for common defense
Washington: signed bill
1791: established for 20 year period.
Reading Check 6.1
1. Identifying: What departments did Congress establish?
Dept. of State
Dept. of Treasury
Dept. of War
Office of Attorney General
-1791: Congress imposed tax on manufacture of whiskey
-Summer 1794: rebellion
*Hamilton: urged Washington to put down the rebellion
-Washington: 15,000 troops to stop rebellion
*Hamilton's financial program split Congress into factions
-became 1st political parties
(Led by Madison & Jefferson)
(most referred to them as
-Republicans are a different party
Hamilton & Federalists
*strong national govt
*manufacturing and trade were basis of national wealth and power
*supporters: artisans, merchants, manufacturers and bankers
Jefferson & Republicans
*Jefferson emerged as leader of Republicans
*strength of the US was its independent farmers (agrarianism)
*owning land allowed people to be independent
*too much emphasis on commerce would lead to a society divided between the rich and poor.
*rights of states against the power of the federal govt.
*Development of America's
first two political parties divided the country regionally.
*South and West: Republicans
*urban Northeast: Federalists
Reading Check 6.1
2. Classifying: What were the nation's first two political parties?
Shortly after Washington became president, the French Revolution began.
Americans sympathized for a short time. In the spring of 1793, new French radicals seized control. They stripped the aristocrats of their property and executed thousands of people, including the king and queen. Radicals soon declared war on Britain. Since both Britain and France traded with the US, Americans soon found themselves in a dilemma.
*many Federalists opposed it (violence and chaos)
*many Republicans supported it admiring the fight for liberty.
*Washington: difficult position
*Treaty of 1778: France
*April 22, 1793:
declares US "friendly and impartial" toward both sides.
*British navy began intercepting all neutral ships carrying goods to French ports.
*British: forts on American territory
*brink of war 1794
*Washington: John Jay to Britain
*British busy fighting
-did not want to fight AM.
*agreed to sign (not easily)
-Britain had right to seize cargo
-no payment for Am. goods that were seized
*Senate: had to ratify treaty.
-shocked by terms, kept secret
-ratified, terms leaked to public
*Republicans: accused Fed. of being Pro-British
Spain joined France
*Jay's Treaty: scared Spain (?)
-Spain negotiates w/ US
-Thomas Pinckney to Spain
: Treaty of San Lorenzo
Reading Check 6-2
1. Summarizing: Why did President Washington choose neutrality in the war between Britain and France?
to avoid war with Britain and breaking a treaty with France.
*Appalachian Mtns. & Mississippi River
*Little Turtle (chief of Miami people)
-confederacy: Miami, Shawnee, Delaware & others.
*1790: defeat American troops
*1791: ambush American force led by Gen. Arthur St. Clair, killing nearly 1/2 his men.
*Washington -> Gen. Anthony Wayne stop resistance.
*Aug. 1794: Shawnee, Ottawa, Chippewa, and Potawatomi: (Blue Jacket) attacked troops
-Battle of Fallen Timbers
*Aug. 1795:12 Nat. Am. nations signed
Treaty of Greenville
-Nat. Am. give up part of S. Ohio & Indiana
*Exchange: yearly payment from Govt. of $10,000.
Washington Leaves Office
*Decided to retire:
-tired of party politics
-tired of attacks on his character
*wrote a letter to the American people
-becoming too attached to any foreign nation
Election of 1796
*first openly contested election
-Federalists: John Adams
-Republicans: Thomas Jefferson
-Thomas Jefferson: 68
Reading Check 6-2
2. Describing: What advice did Washington give about political parties and alliances?
*cautious of Political parties
*avoid growing close w/ foreign nations
=mad about Jay's Treaty
-stop American ships going to Britain
*many Federalists wanted to declare war
-sent Charles Pinckney, Elbridge Gerry & John Marshall to negotiate
-XYZ Affair: French effort for bribes
-call for war
-Congress suspended trade w/ France
-directed navy to capture armed French ships
*now fighting an undeclared war at sea
-fall 1798: France = new negotiations
-Sept. 1800: Convention of 1800
-Am. gave up claims against France for damages to Am. ships
-France: released US from treaty of 1778
Reading Check 6-2
3. Explaining: What caused the Quasi-War?
French stopping Am. ship going to Britain
War Between Parties
Federalists push four laws through Congress.
*first three: aimed at Aliens.
(people living in a country they are not citizens of )
-keep aliens & immigrants from criticizing the govt.
-many French & Irish immigrants
-anti-British: tended to vote Republican
(once they became citizens)
1. required immigrants to wait 14 yrs. before becoming citizens.
(weakened Republican support)
*Next TWO: gave Pres. power to deport w/out trial any alien deemed dangerous to US
4. aimed @ preventing sedition
-incitement to rebellion
*federal crime to utter or print anything "false, scandalous, and malicious" against federal govt. or any officer of the govt.
Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions
1798 & 1799
Republican led legislatures
-KY & VA
-passed resolutions secretly written by Jefferson & Madison
-criticized Alien & Sedition Acts
*both declared that since the states created the Constitution, they could declare federal laws unconstitutional
theory that a
should be able to intervene between
people to stop a legal action
if fed. govt passed an unconstitutional law, the states had the right to nullify law.
Reading Check 6-2
4. Analyzing: What was the purpose of the Alien & Sedition Acts?
limit rights of immigrants and prevent people from criticizing the govt.
Election of 1800
* Wanted a more informal Presidency
believer in small government
Hoped to limit federal power.
-paying off debt
-cut govt spending
-did away w/ whiskey tax
-no standing army, local militias
Rise of Supreme Court
Judiciary Act of 1801
* Adams & Federalists
-created 16 new federal judges
*Jefferson & Republicans not happy about Federalist controlled courts
-1st act of Congress under Jefferson repeal Judiciary Act of 1801
-doing away with "midnight judges"
*Republicans tried to remove other Federalists from judiciary by impeachment
*Republican leaders believed that impeachment power was one of the checks & balances in Constitution.
*Congress could impeach & remove judges for arbitrary or unfair decisions, not just for criminal behavior.
1804: House impeached Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase.
-during a trial: "any of those persons or creatures called democrats" removed from the jury
-Was not convicted
no "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors" that Constitution required for removal .
--judges could not only be removed for criminal behavior
not simply because Congress disagreed with their decisions.
*Adams appointed John Marshall as Chief Justice of US
-served for 34 years
-made the Supreme Court into a powerful, independent branch of the federal government
* Supreme Court was originally a very minor body of govt.
-Until Marbury V. Madison
-Federalist; appointed justice of peace in Washington D.C. (before Adams left office)
-Adams signed off on the appointment, but documents were not delivered before Adams left office.
-New Sec. of State (James Madison) supposed to deliver them
-Jefferson : "hold them"
-hoped Marbury would quit & he could appoint a Republican
Marbury V Madison
-Marbury asked S.C. to issue court order making Madison deliver the documents
-Judiciary Act of 1789
"requests for federal court orders go directly to S.C."
-S.C. unanimously agreed w/ Marshall that they could not issue order.
*Marshall : court had no jurisdiction
-Constitution: specific about which cases could be taken directly by SC
-court order request not one of them
-*section of Judiciary Act of 1789 invalid & unconstitutional
*Judicial Review: power to decide whether laws passed by Congress were constitutional & strike down those that were not.
US EXPANDS WEST
1800: Napoleon Bonaparte
-convinced Spain to give Louisiana back to France
*Worried Jefferson: gave France control of lower MS River.
-would force US into alliance with Britain.
-Robert Livingston (ambassador to France)
-try to block deal
-little accomplished until 1803
1. Napoleon had plans to conquer Europe
-If France went to war w/Britain
-US / GB alliance would be bad for him
2. Napoleon short on $$$$
-offered to sell Louisiana including New Orleans
-April 30, 1803: US bought Louisiana from France for $11.25 million. Also took over French debts to American Citizens ($3.75 mil)
Lewis & Clark Expedition
*Jefferson asked Congress to fund a secret expedition into Louisiana Territory to trace Missouri River & find route to Pacific Ocean. (before Louisiana Purchase)
*Meriwether Lewis & William Clarke
*May 1804-"Corps of Discovery" (expedition)
-headed west up the Missouri River
*Sacagawea: Shoshone Indian
-guide & interpreter
*Greatly increased American knowledge of Louisiana Territory & gave US claim to Oregon territory
Reading Check 6- 3
1. Describing: Why did Thomas Jefferson want to purchase the Louisiana Territory?
Purchasing the Louisiana Territory eliminated that threat and gave US control of the MS.
Rising International Tensions
*LA Purchase alarmed New Eng. Federalists
-eventually South & West gained political strength through new states
*Mass.: Essex Junto
-take Mass. out of Union
*Convinced VP Aaron Burr to run for Gov. of NY
-A. Hamilton --> Burr " Dangerous man, and one who ought not be trusted with the reins of government"
*Burr: Offended....challenged Hamilton to duel
*July 11, 1804
-Hamilton refused to fire
-Burr: shot & killed Hamilton
Jefferson: Trying to keep US out of war with Britain & France.
*War between French & British benefited America merchants.
-British seized French ships, Americans began trading w/ French Colonies in Caribbean.
-British left Am. ships alone
1806: British regulations
-Orders in Council
-all ships going to Europe needed British licenses and would be searched for contraband.
-declared: Merchants who obey British system would have their goods confiscated when they reached Europe.
*British navy: terrible conditions and low pay
*British sailors leaving British ships for American ships.
- legalized form of kidnapping that forced people into military service.
-Britain: stop American ships & search for British navy.
*often took Americans as well
* June 1807:
-British warship Leopard stopped American warship Chesapeake.
-Leopard open fire (kill 3) Americans surrender
-British went aboard and seized four sailors
*Chesapeake attack enraged Americans
-claimed for war
-Jefferson: no involved
-Embargo Act of 1807
Embargo Act of 1807
*halting all trade between US & Europe
Result: hurt US more than
France or Britain
*Embargo not working & costing Republican Party political support:
-Congress repealed it in March 1809
The Decision for War
Thomas Jefferson: not running for Pres.
-Rep: James Madison
-Fed: Charles Pinckney
-Brit. & Amer.= Tension
-war or no war?
Madison wanted to avoid war
*Asked Congress to pass:
-stop British from seizing Am. ships
-forbade trade w/ France & Britain
authorized President to reopen trade w/ whichever country removed its restrictions first.
-Idea of this act:
-to play France & Britain against each other
-Congress took new approach
-Nathaniel Macon: drafted
Macon's Bill Number Two
-reopened trade w/ Britain & France
stated: If either nation agreed to drop restrictions, America would stop importing goods from the other nation.
Soon after: Napoleon agreed to drop restrictions w/ American Trade.
-still allowed the seizure of American ships
-Congress: Nonimportation Act against Brit in early 1811
*Madison's plan eventually worked:
1812: Brit ended
on American trade
-2 days later: British learned
America declared war on Great Britain.
The War Hawks
*most who voted for war:
-South & West
-Henry Clay of KY
-John C. Calhoun of SC
-Felix Grundy of TN
-opponents nicknamed them : the War Hawks
Americans in South & West wanted war for two reasons:
1. British trade restrictions hurt Southern planters and western farmers (income mostly earned from shipping tobacco, rice, wheat, & cotton overseas)
2. Western farmers blame British for clashed with Native Americans
Tecumseh & Tippecanoe
*Shawnee leader: believed Native Americans should unite and protect lands
-called for spiritual rebirth of Native American culture
-practiced tradt'l N.A. ways of living .
William Henry Harrison
-prepared to stop Tecumseh's movement of becoming militant
November 1811: Harrison gathered force and marched toward Prophetstown
sent fighters to attack Harrison's troops near Tippecanoe River.
Battle @ Tippecanoe
-left about 1/4 of Harrison's troops dead or wounded
-impact on Native Americans = far greater
Shattered Native American confidence in Tenskwatawa's leadership
-many fled to Canada: including Tecumseh
*Their fleeing led western farmers to think British were supporting and arming Native Americans
-War with Britain would enable the US to seize Canada and end Native American attacks
-gave into pressure & asked
Congress to declare war
-vote split along regional lines
-South & West: yes
Invasion of Canada
*Republican led Congress called for War ----> nation not ready to fight
*Army: 7,000 troops, little equipment
*Navy: 16 ships
*Americans: divided over war
*Paying for war: problem
-Republicans: shut down Bank of US
-difficult for govt to borrow $$, most private bankers in NE
*Despite these problems: Madison ordered military to invade Canada
3 Strikes Against Canada
-American military leaders plan to attack Canada from 3 directions:
Detroit, Niagra Falls, up Hudson River Valley
-All 3 failed
-British gave US "most-favored nation" status
*American merchants not discriminated against in trade w/ Britain
*Granted US right to navigate MS & deposit goods at the port of New Orleans.
1814:Napoleon's empire collapsed =BRIT. V. FRANCE over
-Brits send more troops to US
RAIDS ON DC & BALTIMORE
-US focus = CANADA
-Brits send troops Washington DC
-took over easily
-set fire to White House & Capitol
-Baltimore was ready
-Brits abandoned their attack
-NE growing opposition to war
-1814 Federalists met in Hartford CT
-discuss what could they could do independently of US
-called for several constitutional amendments to increase region's political power
BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS
-Jan. 1815: British fleet landed in NO
-Gen. Andrew Jackson (US)
-made Andrew Jackson a national hero.
-helped destroy Federalist Party
= Federalists appeared divisive & unpatriotic.
Treaty of Ghent
-ended War of 1812
-restored prewar boundaries
-increased nation's prestige overseas
Reading Check 6-4
1. Examining: What were the effects of the Battle of New Orleans?