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Chapter 6 Federalists and Republicans US

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Katherine Sparks

on 6 May 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 6 Federalists and Republicans US

Chapter 6: Federalists and Republicans
FONTS
Section 2: Partisan Politics
Section 3
Jefferson in Office

Section 4 The War of 1812
5.) Identify key cases that helped shape the United States Supreme Court, including Marbury versus Madison, McCullough versus Maryland, and Cherokee Nation versus Georgia.

• Identifying concepts of loose and strict constructionism

6.) Describe relations of the United States with Britain and France from 1781 to 1823, including the XYZ Affair, the War of 1812, and the Monroe Doctrine.
Ch. 6 Section 1: Washington and Congress
Creating a New Government
*Washington: President (1789)
*Congress created:
-Dept. of State
-Dept. of Treasury
-Dept. of War
-Office of Attorney General

*Washington appointed (Cabinet)
-Jefferson: Sec. of State
-A. Hamilton: Sec. of Treasury
-Henry Knox: Sec. of War
-Edmund Randolph: Attorney Gen.
Financing the Govt
Tariff of 1789
*govt most pressing need: source of revenue
*J. Madison & A. Hamilton
*Madison: raise money by taxing imports from other countries
*tariff: required importers to pay a percentage of value of cargo
-Shippers: tonnage (based on how much ships carry)
*Southern planters: opposed
-higher rates to ship rice
*suspected the new govt was opposed to their region's interests
Hamilton
*supported Tariff
-believed needed the ability to borrow money
*Bonds: paper notes promising to repay money after a certain length of time with interest
-to fund war
-few believed bonds would never be paid in full

Opposition
*Madison: "unfair" to original buyers
*people feared of never being paid, sold bonds to speculators at discount
*Madison = outraged
*Southerners outraged
-northern owned bonds
-southerners taxes pay bonds
*Hamilton, Madison, Jefferson = struck deal
-Southerners in Congress: vote for Hamilton's deal
-moved capital south (DC)

Bank of US
*Hamilton: National Bank
-manage debts & interest payments
-issue paper money
-national currency
*Madison argued Congress could not establish a bank
-not a part of enumerated powers
(powers specifically mentioned in Constitution)

*Bank bill: passed
*Jefferson & Randolph: not Constitutional
*Hamilton disagreed.
*Article I, Section 8
"to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper"
-implied powers: powers not explicitly listed in the Const. but necessary for the govt. to do its job.
Hamilton:
-Bank: necessary to:
-collect taxes
-regulate trade
-provide for common defense

Washington: signed bill
1791: established for 20 year period.
Reading Check 6.1
1. Identifying: What departments did Congress establish?
Dept. of State
Dept. of Treasury
Dept. of War
Office of Attorney General
http://www.whitehouse.gov/photos-and-video/video/inside-white-house-cabinet
Whiskey Rebellion

-1791: Congress imposed tax on manufacture of whiskey

-Summer 1794: rebellion

*Hamilton: urged Washington to put down the rebellion
-Washington: 15,000 troops to stop rebellion
-worried citizens
Political Parties
*Hamilton's financial program split Congress into factions
-became 1st political parties
Hamilton supporters:
*Federalists
opponents
:
(Led by Madison & Jefferson)

*Democratic-Republicans
(most referred to them as

Republicans
)
*1800s: Democrats
-Republicans are a different party

Hamilton & Federalists
*strong national govt
*democracy: dangerous
*manufacturing and trade were basis of national wealth and power
*supporters: artisans, merchants, manufacturers and bankers
Jefferson & Republicans
*Jefferson emerged as leader of Republicans
*strength of the US was its independent farmers (agrarianism)
*owning land allowed people to be independent
*too much emphasis on commerce would lead to a society divided between the rich and poor.
*rights of states against the power of the federal govt.
*Development of America's

first two political parties divided the country regionally.

*South and West: Republicans
*urban Northeast: Federalists

Reading Check 6.1
2. Classifying: What were the nation's first two political parties?
Shortly after Washington became president, the French Revolution began.
Americans sympathized for a short time. In the spring of 1793, new French radicals seized control. They stripped the aristocrats of their property and executed thousands of people, including the king and queen. Radicals soon declared war on Britain. Since both Britain and France traded with the US, Americans soon found themselves in a dilemma.

American Response
*many Federalists opposed it (violence and chaos)

*many Republicans supported it admiring the fight for liberty.

*Washington: difficult position
*Treaty of 1778: France
*April 22, 1793:
declares US "friendly and impartial" toward both sides.
Jay's Treaty
*British navy began intercepting all neutral ships carrying goods to French ports.

*British: forts on American territory

*brink of war 1794
*Washington: John Jay to Britain

*British busy fighting
-did not want to fight AM.
*agreed to sign (not easily)
*Jay:
-Britain had right to seize cargo
-no payment for Am. goods that were seized


*Senate: had to ratify treaty.
-shocked by terms, kept secret
-ratified, terms leaked to public
*Republicans: accused Fed. of being Pro-British

Pinckney's Treaty
*1795:

Spain joined France
*Jay's Treaty: scared Spain (?)
-Spain negotiates w/ US
-Thomas Pinckney to Spain
1795
: Treaty of San Lorenzo
*
aka
Pinckney's Treaty




Reading Check 6-2
1. Summarizing: Why did President Washington choose neutrality in the war between Britain and France?
to avoid war with Britain and breaking a treaty with France.
Westward Expansion
*Appalachian Mtns. & Mississippi River
*Rapidly growing
*Little Turtle (chief of Miami people)
-NW Territory
-confederacy: Miami, Shawnee, Delaware & others.
-defend land

*1790: defeat American troops

*1791: ambush American force led by Gen. Arthur St. Clair, killing nearly 1/2 his men.
*Washington -> Gen. Anthony Wayne stop resistance.

*Aug. 1794: Shawnee, Ottawa, Chippewa, and Potawatomi: (Blue Jacket) attacked troops
-Battle of Fallen Timbers
-Americans won
*Aug. 1795:12 Nat. Am. nations signed
Treaty of Greenville

-Nat. Am. give up part of S. Ohio & Indiana

*Exchange: yearly payment from Govt. of $10,000.
Washington Leaves Office
*Decided to retire:
-tired of party politics
-tired of attacks on his character
Farewell Address
*wrote a letter to the American people

*widely printed

*warned about:
-sectionalism
-political parties
-becoming too attached to any foreign nation

p. 1068
Election of 1796
*first openly contested election
-Federalists: John Adams
-Republicans: Thomas Jefferson

*Results:
-John Adams
: 71
WON
-Thomas Jefferson: 68
Reading Check 6-2
2. Describing: What advice did Washington give about political parties and alliances?
*cautious of Political parties

*avoid growing close w/ foreign nations
Quasi-War
*
France
=mad about Jay's Treaty
-stop American ships going to Britain

*many Federalists wanted to declare war
-Adams: reluctant
-sent Charles Pinckney, Elbridge Gerry & John Marshall to negotiate
-XYZ Affair: French effort for bribes
pg. 215
*Americans

are angry
-call for war
-June 1789:
-Congress suspended trade w/ France

-directed navy to capture armed French ships

*now fighting an undeclared war at sea

-Quasi-War
-fall 1798: France = new negotiations

-Sept. 1800: Convention of 1800
-Am. gave up claims against France for damages to Am. ships
-France: released US from treaty of 1778
Reading Check 6-2
3. Explaining: What caused the Quasi-War?
French stopping Am. ship going to Britain
War Between Parties
1789-
Federalists push four laws through Congress.

*first three: aimed at Aliens.

(people living in a country they are not citizens of )
-keep aliens & immigrants from criticizing the govt.
-many French & Irish immigrants
-anti-British: tended to vote Republican
(once they became citizens)


1. required immigrants to wait 14 yrs. before becoming citizens.
(weakened Republican support)

*Next TWO: gave Pres. power to deport w/out trial any alien deemed dangerous to US
4. aimed @ preventing sedition
-incitement to rebellion

*federal crime to utter or print anything "false, scandalous, and malicious" against federal govt. or any officer of the govt.
Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions
1798 & 1799
Republican led legislatures
-KY & VA
-passed resolutions secretly written by Jefferson & Madison
-criticized Alien & Sedition Acts

*both declared that since the states created the Constitution, they could declare federal laws unconstitutional
*VA Resolutions
-interposition:
theory that a
state

should be able to intervene between
the
federal govt
. &
people to stop a legal action


*Kentucky Resolutions
-nullification:

if fed. govt passed an unconstitutional law, the states had the right to nullify law.
Reading Check 6-2
4. Analyzing: What was the purpose of the Alien & Sedition Acts?
limit rights of immigrants and prevent people from criticizing the govt.
Election of 1800
http://www.dickmorris.com/the-election-of-1800-dick-morris-tv-history-video/
* Wanted a more informal Presidency
*strong

believer in small government
:
Hoped to limit federal power.
-paying off debt
-cut govt spending
-did away w/ whiskey tax
-no standing army, local militias
Rise of Supreme Court
Judiciary Act of 1801
* Adams & Federalists
-created 16 new federal judges
"Midnight Judges"

Impeaching Judges
*Jefferson & Republicans not happy about Federalist controlled courts
-1st act of Congress under Jefferson repeal Judiciary Act of 1801
-doing away with "midnight judges"

*Republicans tried to remove other Federalists from judiciary by impeachment
*Republican leaders believed that impeachment power was one of the checks & balances in Constitution.
*Congress could impeach & remove judges for arbitrary or unfair decisions, not just for criminal behavior.
1804: House impeached Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase.
-during a trial: "any of those persons or creatures called democrats" removed from the jury
-Was not convicted
no "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors" that Constitution required for removal .
*court case
established:
--judges could not only be removed for criminal behavior
,
not simply because Congress disagreed with their decisions.
*Adams appointed John Marshall as Chief Justice of US

-served for 34 years
-made the Supreme Court into a powerful, independent branch of the federal government

* Supreme Court was originally a very minor body of govt.
-Until Marbury V. Madison
William Marbury
-Federalist; appointed justice of peace in Washington D.C. (before Adams left office)

-Adams signed off on the appointment, but documents were not delivered before Adams left office.

-New Sec. of State (James Madison) supposed to deliver them
-Jefferson : "hold them"
-hoped Marbury would quit & he could appoint a Republican
Marbury V Madison
-Marbury asked S.C. to issue court order making Madison deliver the documents
-Judiciary Act of 1789
"requests for federal court orders go directly to S.C."

-S.C. unanimously agreed w/ Marshall that they could not issue order.
*Marshall : court had no jurisdiction

-Constitution: specific about which cases could be taken directly by SC

-court order request not one of them

-*section of Judiciary Act of 1789 invalid & unconstitutional
*Judicial Review: power to decide whether laws passed by Congress were constitutional & strike down those that were not.

US EXPANDS WEST
Louisiana Purchase
1800: Napoleon Bonaparte
-convinced Spain to give Louisiana back to France

*Worried Jefferson: gave France control of lower MS River.
-would force US into alliance with Britain.
*Jefferson:
-Robert Livingston (ambassador to France)
-try to block deal
-little accomplished until 1803
1. Napoleon had plans to conquer Europe
-If France went to war w/Britain
-US / GB alliance would be bad for him

2. Napoleon short on $$$$
-offered to sell Louisiana including New Orleans
-Livingston accepted
-April 30, 1803: US bought Louisiana from France for $11.25 million. Also took over French debts to American Citizens ($3.75 mil)
Lewis & Clark Expedition
*Jefferson asked Congress to fund a secret expedition into Louisiana Territory to trace Missouri River & find route to Pacific Ocean. (before Louisiana Purchase)

*Meriwether Lewis & William Clarke

*May 1804-"Corps of Discovery" (expedition)
-headed west up the Missouri River

*Sacagawea: Shoshone Indian
-guide & interpreter

*Greatly increased American knowledge of Louisiana Territory & gave US claim to Oregon territory


Reading Check 6- 3
1. Describing: Why did Thomas Jefferson want to purchase the Louisiana Territory?


Purchasing the Louisiana Territory eliminated that threat and gave US control of the MS.
Rising International Tensions
Essex Junto
*LA Purchase alarmed New Eng. Federalists
-eventually South & West gained political strength through new states
*Mass.: Essex Junto
-take Mass. out of Union
*Convinced VP Aaron Burr to run for Gov. of NY
-A. Hamilton --> Burr " Dangerous man, and one who ought not be trusted with the reins of government"

*Burr: Offended....challenged Hamilton to duel

*July 11, 1804
-Hamilton refused to fire
-Burr: shot & killed Hamilton
Economic Warfare
Jefferson: Trying to keep US out of war with Britain & France.
*War between French & British benefited America merchants.
-British seized French ships, Americans began trading w/ French Colonies in Caribbean.

-British left Am. ships alone

1806: British regulations
-Orders in Council
-all ships going to Europe needed British licenses and would be searched for contraband.

*Response: Napoleon
-declared: Merchants who obey British system would have their goods confiscated when they reached Europe.
Impressment
*Problem:
*British navy: terrible conditions and low pay

*British sailors leaving British ships for American ships.

Solution
*impressment:
- legalized form of kidnapping that forced people into military service.

-Britain: stop American ships & search for British navy.
*often took Americans as well
* June 1807:
-British warship Leopard stopped American warship Chesapeake.
-Chesapeake refused
-Leopard open fire (kill 3) Americans surrender

-British went aboard and seized four sailors
*Chesapeake attack enraged Americans
-claimed for war
-Jefferson: no involved
-Embargo Act of 1807
Embargo Act of 1807
*halting all trade between US & Europe
Result: hurt US more than
France or Britain
*Embargo not working & costing Republican Party political support:
-Congress repealed it in March 1809
The Decision for War
Thomas Jefferson: not running for Pres.
-Rep: James Madison
-Fed: Charles Pinckney

-Madison Won
International Crisis
-Brit. & Amer.= Tension

-Madison: decision=
-war or no war?

Economic Pressures
Madison wanted to avoid war
*Asked Congress to pass:
Non-Intercourse Act*
-stop British from seizing Am. ships
-forbade trade w/ France & Britain
-
authorized President to reopen trade w/ whichever country removed its restrictions first.
-Idea of this act:
-to play France & Britain against each other
May 1810
-Congress took new approach
-Nathaniel Macon: drafted
Macon's Bill Number Two
-reopened trade w/ Britain & France

stated: If either nation agreed to drop restrictions, America would stop importing goods from the other nation.
Soon after: Napoleon agreed to drop restrictions w/ American Trade.
-still allowed the seizure of American ships

-Madison accepted
*Madison hoped:
-pressure Britain
-Britain refused:
-Congress: Nonimportation Act against Brit in early 1811
*Madison's plan eventually worked:
-early
1812: Brit ended
all
restrictions
on American trade
-too late
-2 days later: British learned
America declared war on Great Britain.
The War Hawks
*most who voted for war:
-South & West

-Led by:
-Henry Clay of KY
-John C. Calhoun of SC
-Felix Grundy of TN

-opponents nicknamed them : the War Hawks
Americans in South & West wanted war for two reasons:

1. British trade restrictions hurt Southern planters and western farmers (income mostly earned from shipping tobacco, rice, wheat, & cotton overseas)

2. Western farmers blame British for clashed with Native Americans

Tecumseh & Tippecanoe
Tecumseh
*Shawnee leader: believed Native Americans should unite and protect lands
Tenskwatawa
-Brother:
-called for spiritual rebirth of Native American culture

-Prophetstown, IN
(Tippecanoe River)
-practiced tradt'l N.A. ways of living .
William Henry Harrison
-Gov.

of IN

-prepared to stop Tecumseh's movement of becoming militant
November 1811: Harrison gathered force and marched toward Prophetstown

*Tenskwatawa-striked 1st
sent fighters to attack Harrison's troops near Tippecanoe River.

*Bloody
Battle @ Tippecanoe
-left about 1/4 of Harrison's troops dead or wounded

-impact on Native Americans = far greater
-
Shattered Native American confidence in Tenskwatawa's leadership
-many fled to Canada: including Tecumseh


*Their fleeing led western farmers to think British were supporting and arming Native Americans

-War with Britain would enable the US to seize Canada and end Native American attacks
*Early
June 1812
: President
Madison
-gave into pressure & asked
Congress to declare war
-vote split along regional lines
-South & West: yes
-Northeast: no
Invasion of Canada
*Republican led Congress called for War ----> nation not ready to fight
*Army: 7,000 troops, little equipment
*Navy: 16 ships
*Americans: divided over war

*Paying for war: problem
-Republicans: shut down Bank of US
-difficult for govt to borrow $$, most private bankers in NE
*Despite these problems: Madison ordered military to invade Canada
3 Strikes Against Canada
-American military leaders plan to attack Canada from 3 directions:
Detroit, Niagra Falls, up Hudson River Valley
toward Montreal
-All 3 failed
-British gave US "most-favored nation" status

*American merchants not discriminated against in trade w/ Britain
*Granted US right to navigate MS & deposit goods at the port of New Orleans.
WAR ENDS
1814:Napoleon's empire collapsed =BRIT. V. FRANCE over
-Brits send more troops to US
RAIDS ON DC & BALTIMORE
-US focus = CANADA
-Brits send troops Washington DC
-took over easily
-set fire to White House & Capitol
-Baltimore was ready
-Brits abandoned their attack


HARTFORD CONVENTION
-NE growing opposition to war
-1814 Federalists met in Hartford CT
-discuss what could they could do independently of US
-called for several constitutional amendments to increase region's political power

BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS
-Jan. 1815: British fleet landed in NO
-Gen. Andrew Jackson (US)
-cotton bales
-American victory
-made Andrew Jackson a national hero.
-helped destroy Federalist Party

-Nationalism grew
= Federalists appeared divisive & unpatriotic.
Treaty of Ghent
-ended War of 1812
-restored prewar boundaries
-increased nation's prestige overseas
Reading Check 6-4
1. Examining: What were the effects of the Battle of New Orleans?
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