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Exploring the Cytoplasm
Transcript of Exploring the Cytoplasm
Lysosomes that lack a necessary hydrolytic enzyme lead to hereditary diseases such as:
Tay-Sachs disease- Lipids accumulate in the brain due to lack of a lipid-digesting enzyme.
Pompe disease-Lack of a glycogen-digesting enzyme (alpha-glucosidase) results in muscle weakness.
The cytosol protects lysosomes from damage caused by collision
If a lysosome were to leak, little damage would be done to the cell due to the cytosol's neutral pH
Endoplasmic Reticulum: Smooth and Rough
The word "endoplasmic" means "within the cytoplasm!
Smooth: When a smooth E.R. membrane pumps calcium ions from the cytosol, a stimulated cell causes those calcium ions to rush back across the E.R. membrane into the cytosol and trigger a contraction
Rough: The rough E.R. assembles phospholipids from precursors (something that gives rise to a more mature form) in the cytosol.
Unable to use glucose.Only after enzymes in the cytosol break down glucose into pyruvate can cellular respiration commence
Problems in the mitochondria that interfere with the ability to make energy lead to hereditary diseases
Leigh syndrome- Affects the central nervous system. The system loses the ability to function properly and causes seizures, dementia, heart problems, and muscle weakness
Mr. Cytoplasm... giving your job a purpose
*More specifically: Microfilaments
Cytoplasmic streaming is the circular flow of cytoplasm within cells
Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells would be when a layer of cytoplasm cycles around the cell, moving through a jungle of parallel actin filaments. Myosin motors attached to the organelles in the (fluid) cytosol would then drive the streaming
Disruptions in the cytoskeleton can lead to a range of diseases, such as sickle cell anemia and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Sickle cell anaemia is a genetic disease that results in the production of a defective form of hemoglobin, which distorts red blood cells into a sickle shape.
Also, without the cytoplasm, the cytoskeleton would be useless
Why vote for Mr. Cytoplasm?
Helps keep the organelles suspended
The functions for cell expansion, growth and replication are carried out in the cytoplasm of the cell.
Helps in transportation because of it's fluid-like structure
Protects organelles from damage due to cell movement and collision by acting as a buffer
Regulates the pH of the cell
Mr.Cytoplasm's Adviser: Mr.Cytosol
Is the internal fluid of the cell
The cytosol has enzymes that take molecules and break them down, so that the individual organelles can use them as they need to. These enzymes play an important role in processes such as glycolysis, cellular respiration, etc.
Campbell, Neil A., Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, and Robert B. Jackson. "A Tour of the Cell." AP Edition Biology. New York: Benjamin/Cummings, 2008. 94-122. Print.
"Cause of the Disease." Pompe.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Oct. 2013.
"Cytoplasm Function." Buzzle.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Oct. 2013.
SherkThomson Gale, Stephanie. "Mitochondrial Disorders." Healthline.com. N.p., 2006. Web. 26 Oct. 2013.
"Structure and Functions of Cytoplasm." Buzzle.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Oct. 2013.
"What Are the Functions of the Cytoplasm?" InnovateUs.net. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Oct. 2013.
"What Is the Function of Cytoplasm?" WiseGEEK.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Oct. 2013.
Don't vote for these organelles...