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Carboxylic Acids

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Courtney South

on 6 March 2013

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Transcript of Carboxylic Acids

By: Ben Oliver, Courtney South, Elijah Mucciaccio, Janelle Forward Carboxylic Acids Carboxylic Acids Naming Reactions Everyday Uses References Naming Rules:
Name as normal but start numbering the carbons at the carboxyl group
Drop the ‘e’ from the ending such as ‘ane’ and add ‘oic acid’ - so methane becomes methanoic acid
The Carboxyl group takes priority over double and triple bonds and carbon branches
When working with benzene drop the ‘ene’ and add ‘oic acid’ in its place DiGiuseppe, M., Haberner, S., Salciccioli, K., Sanader, M., Vavitsac, A.. (2012). Nelson Chemistry 12. Toronto, Ont. : Thompson/Nelson. Pages 47-49, 51, 55.
Van Kessel, H., Jenkins, F., Davies, L., Plumb, D., DiGieseppe, M., Lantz, O., Tompkins D.. (2003). Nelson Chemistry 12. Toronto, Ont. :Thompson/Nelson. Pages 58-63.
Everyday Chemistry - Fruity facts about carboxylic acid. (n.d.). Human Touch Of Chemistry - Basic Concepts, Fun & Facts of Chemistry in Daily Life. Retrieved March 6, 2013, from http://humantouchofchemistry.com/fruity-facts-about-carboxylic-acid.htm
http://cameochemicals.noaa.gov/react/3 Carboxylic Acids A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group, -COOH. Properties Properties The melting points, are higher than those of their corresponding hydrocarbons. A carboxyl group is a carbon atom that is double-bond to 1 oxygen atom and single-bonded to a hydroxyl group organic acids are weak electrolytes in general. They form salts with bases just as inorganic acids do. Formation of Carboxylic Acids The most common synthesis of carboxylic acids is the oxidation of aldehydes. When an aldehyde reacts with an oxidizing agent, a carboxylic acid is usually formed. A Breathalyzer test would be an example of this kind of reaction. The oxidizing agent in this test is a potassium dichromate (IV) ion, which is orange. When a person exhales air consisting of ethanol, it is it is oxidized into ethanal and further oxidized into ethanoic acid. The ion changes from orange to green, which indicates the presence of alcohol. have two polar groups- a carbonyl and a hydroxyl- located close together, their molecules are very polar. form hydrogen bonds with one another and with polar solvents such as water Types of Reactions carboxylic acids with 5 or fewer carbon atoms are very soluble in water Reactivity Carboxylic acids that have six or less carbon atoms are highly soluble in water; if there are more than six carbon atoms, the carboxylic acid becomes much less soluble.

When in water, they dissociate in order to yield hydrogen ions.

This therefore means that solutions of carboxylic acids have a pH level of less than 7.

Aqueous carboxylic acids are rather reactive when introduced to metals (particularly alkali metals) to form water and gases.

When reacting with other compounds, carboxylic acids generate different levels of heat and energy (depending on the type of reaction). Types of Reactions Most reactions convert carboxylic acids into esters, amides, carboxylate salts, acid chlorides and alcohols.

When carboxylic acids react with a base, carboxylates (salts and esters formed from carboxylic acids) are formed. In this type of reaction, the hydroxyl group is replaced with a metal cation. A large amount of heat is required for this to happen. This type of reaction is known as a "neutralization". An example of this can be seen when acetic acid in vinegar reacts with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda):

CH3COOH + NaHCO3----> CH3C2ONa + CO2 + H2O

When an alcohol and carboxylic acid react, it can form an ester and water. This reaction is known as esterification.

O=RC-OH + R'OH -----> O=RC-O-R' + HOH

In a similar manner, carboxylic acids can also be converted into amides, in which esters act as a precursor.

Carboxylic acids are also used to create alcohols. Through the process of hydrogenation (a reaction between molecular hydrogen and another compound or molecule), the carboxylic acid is reduced to an alcohol as the organic compound is saturated. larger carboxylic acids have decreasing solubility due to the large non-polar hydrocarbon group however they are soluble in polar organic solvents, such as alcohol This is explained by the increased intermolecular attractions of the polar carboxyl functional groups. Such is supported by the significantly higher melting points of analogous acids with an abundance of carboxyl groups.
They have rather strong smells, and tend to have a bitter, sour taste Examples Example 1: Ethanoic Acid Example 2: Methanoic Acid Example 3: 3-methylbutanoic Acid Example 4: hept-4-enoic acid Example 5: Benzoic Acid Ex #1 Ex#2 Ex#3 Ex#4 Ex#5 usually weak acids and can be found in sour, tangy foods such as vinegar, crab apples, rhubarb, and citrus fruits.
can also be found in different tree barks.
can be used to dye cottons, stain wood, treat acne, and in cleansing/bleaching solutions.
carboxylic acids also have a distinct smell, which can be tracked by law enforcement dogs to find a person or illegal drug laboratories.
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